Total Hip Replacement (THR)

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1.2 Total hip replacements Arthritis or rheumatism is the leading cause of disability [1]. Arthritis is inflammation of one or more of the joints and the main symptoms of arthritis are joint pain and stiffness, which typically worsen with age [1]. More than 20 million individuals with arthritis have severe limitations in function on a daily basis [2]. Majority of the patients, who goes through this disability, finds their solution by doing Total Hip Replacement (THR) surgery. More than 285,000 hip replacements are performed in the U.S. each year [3]. It is estimated that by 2030 there will be an increment of 175% in the THR surgeries rising the numbers to 0.5 Million [3].Thus, these numbers portray the importance of hip replacement surgeries in the near future. Hip joint deterioration can lead to pain, stiffness or difficulty walking. When these symptoms do not respond to conservative treatment, such as physical therapy, patients may be advised to undergo total hip replacement or hip resurfacing. As part of this treatment, they may receive a “metal-on-metal” hip implant in which the “ball and socket” of the device are both made from metal as shown in Figure 1. These metal implants have been used in total hip replacement (THR) surgeries and hip resurfacing procedures. Because of metal's durability, MoM devices were expected …show more content…

Majority of today’s hip implants are made of cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy (CoCrMo alloy), Ti6Al4V (Ti alloy) and Stainless Steel (316L) [6]. Recently, there has been a growing concern on the metal-on-metal (MoM) hip implants among the orthopedic clinicians and researchers. This is partially due to wear and corrosion behavior of the metals used for such implants, particularly their synergistic interactions lead to early failure and release of the metal ions to the host body as shown in Figure 2. In

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