Understanding Latin America's International and Economic Relations with Import Substitution Industrialization Model

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Prior to analyzing the ISI (Import Substitution Industrialization) model, it’s benefits as well as its shortcomings, a small introduction of how it came to be and why must be provided. As a product of the 1930s economic crisis and wear and tear of the liberal model, ISI appears in Latin America as another economic option, proposed by ECLA (Economic Commission for Latin America, dependent of the UN) as a means of bringing Latin America out of stagnation and work towards industrialization to eliminate its dependency on agriculture which was seen as vulnerable.
There are two critical ways in which this model must be examined, theoretically as well as its concrete outcomes and policy implications within Latin American states. By looking at
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Therefore, it was believed that “Latin America instead of following outward-looking development path should instead pursue an ISI policy as the centre-piece for a new inward-directed development strategy” (Kay 5), following the beginning footsteps of the developed states.
Although its main goal was to strengthen the national economy to better compete in the global market, ISI has had very controversial results. Positively speaking, it has resulted in a decrease in imports, which has favoured certain national industries such as electric materials for construction, textiles, chemicals, etc., the nationalization of natural resources, betterment of term of trade, state intervention in economics (which led to the development of education, health and employment), strengthening of social organizations, but most importantly, the consolidation of the middle class. On a negative note, these nations led to become greatly dependent on technology, there was an increase of external capital control over developed areas, an under qualified labour force for factory jobs, increase in prices of manufactured goods and inflation, migration from rural to urban areas and as a result an increase in social problems, and finally, the industrial sector did not bother to conquer external markets which essentially contradicted the whole purpose of ISI. For these reasons ISI was seen as a

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