A critical evaluation of the role of public policy, strategies and initiatives in helping to address alcohol misuse within England
In the last 50 years the United Kingdom (UK) has gone from having one of the lowest alcohol consumption levels in Europe to being one of the few countries in Europe where alcohol consumption is actually increasing (Home Office, 2012). In response to this, in March 2012, the Government published its strategy for tackling alcohol misuse in the UK (Home Office, 2012). The WHO had, in 2010, produced a global strategy for tackling alcohol related harm and the Government’s strategy links back to several of the WHO recommendations for national action, for example, tackling pricing, advertising, and availability of alcohol (WHO, 2016). Public health interventions may be delivered at three different levels: structural level, local level, and individual level, and the Government strategy makes recommendations for each of these levels. At the structural level the Government recommends initiatives targeting pricing of alcohol, and its advertising, together with cooperative working with the alcohol industry to promote more responsible drinking. At the local level, more power is given to local authorities regarding provision of services as well as the licensing of premises, imposing restrictions on the sale of alcohol and a levy on late night trading premises; and at the individual level individuals will be encouraged to drink responsibly and provided with
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Alcoholism is one of the most intractable and pervasive psychological disorders known. Though the negative health consequences of alcohol are widely understood, and, if anything, the social consequences of alcoholism are even more widely acknowledged, it seems that no matter what steps are taken by public health officials or private organizations, no strategy can ever be fully developed for eradicating alcoholism. There are a number of reasons why this is true. This paper will explore some of the social and medical problems created by alcohol, but in it I will also consider the role of alcohol in my personal life and the way I have seen the disease play out in the lives of people around me. The paper will also examine the social and political responses to the problem of alcoholism and attempt to determine where productive approaches have been taken and areas where mistakes have been made. Before discussing such wide-ranging questions, it is important to understand what alcoholism is and how it is manifested.
Chapter one of American Public Policy, by B. Guy Peters, gives an in depth explanation of what American public policy is. The definition that Peters gives of Public policy is the” sum of government activities whether pursued directly or through agents, as those activities have an influence on the lives of citizens” (4). This definition of public policy can be categorized into three levels that will make differences in citizen’s lives. The first level is policy choices. This level is when, “decisions made by politicians, civil servants, or other granted authority that are directed toward using public power to affect the lives of the citizens” (4). All of these choices that are made by the president, congressman, or others can evolve into a
Alcohol is the most abused licit psychoactive drugs that affect one 's ability to think rationally and distorts their judgement if consumed excessively. Alcohol addiction is an illness arising from prolonged and excessive intake of alcoholic drinks. An alcoholic is a person suffering from alcohol addiction. Prolonged excessive use of large quantities can eventually lead to chronic health diseases like cirrhosis of the liver, anaemia, cardiovascular disease, dementia, depression seizures, gout and alcohol related accidents and crime. Statistics show that 9 million people in England drink more than the recommended daily intake while an estimated 8.697 died of alcohol-related deaths in 2014. According to the WHO worldwide alcohol causes 1.8 million deaths (3.2% of total) and 58.3 million (4% of total) of Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). Alcohol beverages with varied percentage content are consumed globally during religious, social, cultural events, festivals and other occasions. The use of alcoholic beverages has been an integral part of many cultures for thousands of years (McGovern, 2009). Over the centuries, there have been ongoing measures, research, interventions and policies which are aimed at promoting the moderate use of alcohol with a particular emphasis on preventing or reducing undesired outcomes. This essay will outline the key components of brief interventions in alcohol, the difference in approach with traditional methods of treatment and in conclusion, the
Governor Jeb Bush initiated the nation's boldest voucher experiment in June of 1999 when he signed into law his Opportunity Scholarship Program. Florida is the first in the nation with a statewide plan allowing state-paid tuition for children in "F" graded schools to attend private schools or other non-failing schools. Opponents claim that giving parents the choice to use state education funds at private schools could end up bankrupting the public education system so many children rely upon. Proponents of vouchers argue the voucher program will give parents a way to help children trapped in failing schools. Matthew Berry, a staff attorney with the Washington, D.C. based Institute for Justice, believes, “As
In this study will be discussed whether increasing the minimum legal drinking age is effective strategy to control young populations’ drinking trends and expecting positive public health consequences in Australia.
The chosen public policy issue is the ongoing effort within nursing to advance the field through taking action. In this case, action takes four distinct activities: advocacy, policy, learning as a lifelong process and involvement in philanthropy. This action can be applied through community-based participatory research which is a research partnership seeking the involvement of all members of the community. Under this approach, all participants contribute their knowledge to the process in an effort to better the quality of life in that community members (Israel et al., 2008). It is because there are so many under-served populations and in under-serving these populations nursing fails to live up to its professional and this is a policy change that must be made. This issue of public policy, that is, the issue of the prevalence of under-served populations which clearly requires changing, and the role that nursing can play in this public policy process is discussed at length in Burkhardt and Nathaniel (2013).
In today’s society, drinking alcohol has become the cultural norm. Since 1788, binge drinking has been a cultural problem in Australia, since then alcohol has being a fundamental aspect of Australian’s life (Scott, 2015). It is defined as the heavily consumption of alcohol, during short period of time with the intention of becoming intoxicated (Australia Drug Foundation, 2016). Despite, the improvement of Australian’s attitude towards alcohol, there still remains a significant pressure not just to drink but to drink excessively (Scott, 2015). In Australia more than $7 billon of alcohol-related tax is generated annually, becoming the most widely used drug (Australia Drug Foundation, 2016). According to the Australian Drug Foundation, 2016, binge
Binge drinking is a common issue in the UK. According to the Drinkaware (2015) shows that the UK is one of the supreme countries of the rate of binge drinking in Europe. And the circumstance of binge drinking is particularly round adolescents, for example, under the investigation indicated that pupils are more conversant with beer brands than biscuits. (Alcohol Concern, 2015) It indicates that teenagers know about alcohol in early age, so have more chance to heavy drink. One of the reasons why, is that most of the young people know about the alcohol though the internet or the advertisement on TV. Due to the technology, is more wide range in recent years.
This involves community members working collaboratively with local businesses and government to reduce alcohol related harm through influencing drinking environments. M arketing of products often plays on fears and insecurities of individuals and deliver a panacea to ‘not fitting in’ through sense of inclusion and popularity associated with procuring the product (Hamilton and Deniss 2005:37). Young people are particularly prone to these types of techniques. Given the entrenchment of drinking in Australian culture, these marketing and promotional techniques many which evolve through sponsoring popular sporting or social events, can be quite compelling to young people and reinforce harmful aspects of Australia’s drinking culture (National Alliance for Action on Alcohol 2010:4). Recent studies have indicated that increased alcohol advertising leads to higher levels of alcohol consumption (Collins and Lapsley 2008:18). Further, in an effort to align rhetoric and practice, state and federal governments should show leadership in their efforts to reduce the harmful effects of alcohol by seeking the removal of all direct and indirect alcohol advertising from venues which are owned, leased, managed or run by state assisted entities. Consuming alcohol is part of contemporary Australian cultural practice. Drinking is viewed as an acceptable social activity
Approximately £8bn and £13bn per year is estimated cost for alcohol related crimes in UK (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2010). Around 16% and 22% women and men are drinking more than 14 and 21 units per week respectively, including 29% people are drinking at increasing risk level and around 9% both men and women are drinking beyond high risk levels. Women who are drinking more than 35 units a week and men who are drinking more than 50 units a week are described as high risk drinkers and said to be particular risk of harm (NHS, UK, 2014). Though average consumption of alcohol reached to a peak 11.6 litres in 2004, but it is returned to 9.7 litres in 2012 (British Beer and Pub Association, Statistical Handbook, Brewing Publications, London, 2013). In 2014, estimation of 53% of alcohol drinks are more affordable than in 1980 (HSCIC, Leeds, 2015). Approximately 29% of violent incidents took place in or around a pub or club in 2013-14 and Over 68% of violent crimes occur in the evening or at night (ONS, 2015). Meanwhile in England, alcohol related deaths has risen to 10.1% from 2003 to 2013 and there were estimated 333,000 hospital admissions attributing alcohol as primary or secondary cause (Alcohol educationtrust.org, 2016). Although it is clear that excessive drinking by young people is a
The purpose of the following report is to illustrate the current economic arguments and concerns around binge drinking in Australia. This is then followed by looking at the method of introducing an ‘alcopop’ tax aimed at reducing the amount of binge drinking in Australia. The report will use a large variety of research articles, economic theories and models to report on this issue.
Pleasant rules (CMG38) unsafe drinking and liquor dependence in youngsters, youngsters and grown-ups https://www.nice.org.uk/direction/way of life and-wellbeing/liquor
Through the figures illustrated, it is evident that Wales has a vast problem with alcohol misuse and that unemployment could be a contributing factor. The epidemiology and trends of alcohol misuse was discussed, while the social determinants of alcohol misuse based on gender difference, age, ethnicity, and family background was addressed. The policies put in place by both the local and national government to address the issues and problems of alcohol misuses are assessed. The last section provided some recommendations and strategies to address the issue of alcohol misuse. Furthermore to prevent binge drinking investigating and exploring the existing theories and programs aimed at reducing alcohol consumption is beneficial.
Public education in the United States is perhaps one of the most critical issues we face as a nation. Once pronouncing the United States as a “nation at risk”, the educational institution began to implement one reform strategy after another. In efforts to improve schooling for K-12 students, education reform has fiddled with class size, revised graduation requirements, and created standardized testing just to name a few. Unfortunately, traditional public schools are still failing to provide students with a quality education. This is disheartening as we learn that the United States lags behind in math and science compared to our international counterparts. It is safe to say that educational reform has spent billions of dollars over the