A Qualitative Analysis of the Types of Goals Athletes Set in Training and Competition: Article Summary

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Summary of an Article: A Qualitative Analysis of the Types of Goals Athletes Set in Training and Competition Validity and Reliability In order for research to be reliable, other researchers must be able to perform the same experiment and achieve the same results (Shuttleworth, 2008). The reliability of this study is unknown at this point. In the past, researchers have used quantitative methods to try to find out the feelings that athletes have had about goal-setting. This survey method has increased reliability because it has limited the answer options for the survey respondents. However, the researchers were concerned that the results be generalizable, so they adopted an open-ended survey. "Athletes completed an open-ended questionnaire about the specific types of goals they set. The questionnaire was structured around issues of interest in the present research (e.g., goal setting in training versus competition) and previous findings (e.g., athletes set goals for skill improvement, confidence enhancement, and for outcomes such as winning)" (Munroe-Chandler et al., 2004). Because it was a qualitative study and the investigators coded responses, examining internal reliability is critical to determine whether or not the study exhibited reliability. The researchers used a constant comparative method to divide transcripts into text units and compare and regroup them. Two researchers independently ranked the responses, and they had 97% agreement on their coding, which

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