A Short Note On Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ( Copd )

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C hronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease state characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. COPD is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide and it is largely preventable. The main cause in developed countries is exposure to tobacco smoke. Other preventable causes include exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollution, such as occupational exposure (firefighters, farm workers) and the burning of biomass fuel for cooking and heating which impacts many women in Africa, China, and India.
COPD
The pathology of COPD includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis, although only one of these may be present in some people with COPD. Emphysema is the abnormal permanent enlargement of the air spaces distal to
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the third leading cause of death in America, claiming the lives of 134,676 Americans in 2011. The United States National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute has estimated that it has resulted in a US$ 49.9 billion loss to the USA economy in direct and indirect costs in 2010, with direct costs totaling US$ 29.5 billion.
Medications
None of the existing medications for COPD has been shown to modify the long-term disease progression such as decline in lung function in many patients or worsening of health status. Therefore, pharmacotherapy for COPD is used to alleviate symptoms and/or prevent complications. Inhaled bronchodilators are the mainstay treatment for COPD. Two largescale, long-term, landmark studies have confirmed the efficacy of a fixed dose combination of a long-acting Beta2 agonist (Salmeterol) and inhaled corticosteroid (Fluticasone) and a long acting anticholinergic agent (Tiotropium).
• Salmeterol/fluticasone inhaled: COPD Maintenance; Available forms: Powder for inhalation 50mcg/250mcg actuation. Adult dosage: 1 inhalation (50 mcg/250mcg) twice daily; not to exceed twice daily administration. Pediatric dosage: Not documented for COPD. Side effects: rash and urticaria, which may signal a hypersensitivity reaction. Adverse reaction: Headache, pharyngitis, Upper respiratory tract infection, tremor, nervousness, sleep disturbance, fever. Patient Teaching: Remind patient to take drug at about
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