C hronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease state characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. COPD is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide and it is largely preventable. The main cause in developed countries is exposure to tobacco smoke. Other preventable causes include exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollution, such as occupational exposure (firefighters, farm workers) and the burning of biomass fuel for cooking and heating which impacts many women in Africa, China, and India.
The pathology of COPD includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis, although only one of these may be present in some people with COPD. Emphysema is the abnormal permanent enlargement of the air spaces distal to …show more content…
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the third leading cause of death in America, claiming the lives of 134,676 Americans in 2011. The United States National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute has estimated that it has resulted in a US$ 49.9 billion loss to the USA economy in direct and indirect costs in 2010, with direct costs totaling US$ 29.5 billion.
None of the existing medications for COPD has been shown to modify the long-term disease progression such as decline in lung function in many patients or worsening of health status. Therefore, pharmacotherapy for COPD is used to alleviate symptoms and/or prevent complications. Inhaled bronchodilators are the mainstay treatment for COPD. Two largescale, long-term, landmark studies have confirmed the efficacy of a fixed dose combination of a long-acting Beta2 agonist (Salmeterol) and inhaled corticosteroid (Fluticasone) and a long acting anticholinergic agent (Tiotropium).
• Salmeterol/fluticasone inhaled: COPD Maintenance; Available forms: Powder for inhalation 50mcg/250mcg actuation. Adult dosage: 1 inhalation (50 mcg/250mcg) twice daily; not to exceed twice daily administration. Pediatric dosage: Not documented for COPD. Side effects: rash and urticaria, which may signal a hypersensitivity reaction. Adverse reaction: Headache, pharyngitis, Upper respiratory tract infection, tremor, nervousness, sleep disturbance, fever. Patient Teaching: Remind patient to take drug at about
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I will analyse the prevalence of the condition and what the potential causes may be. My interests have been directed to pre hospital care and community lead treatment packages, which are potentially available to the patient, as this is the acute environment, which I will have contact with in my employment as a paramedic. The initial reading was to understand COPD as a chronic condition, what is COPD? and its prevalence in the population. The (World health organisation, 2000), states that one in four deaths in the world are caused by COPD. In 2010 (Vos T Flaxman etal, 2012), says globally there were approximately 329 million, which is 4.8% of the population who are affected by this chronic condition, In the UK (NICE, 2010), have estimated that 3 million people suffer from COPD, with more yet to be diagnosed. This information about the amount of people living with this condition was surprising, as I little knowledge of its existence. During the early 1960’s (Timothy Q. Howes, 2005), says the term COPD had been designated as a single term unifying all the chronic respiratory diseases. Since then the term COPD, has been sub divided in to three umbrella areas, Bronchitis, Emphysema and Chronic asthma, which are separate conditions, which I have been previously aware of as their individual conditions. The 58 year old patient who we visited,
There are no cure for this disease. However, there are different treatment to prevent further deterioration of the lungs function in order to improve the quality of life of the patient by increasing capacity of their physical activity. One of the main severe complication a patient with COPD can develop is exacerbation. Increased breathlessness, increased sputum volume and purulent sputum are the signs and symptoms of exacerbation. Early detection of the signs of exacerbation can help keep the condition of the patient from worsening. The treatments of COPD mainly aims at controlling the symptoms of exacerbation such as taking inhalers. Patients who are over the age of 35 and ex-smokers with chronic cough and bronchitis are recommended to have spirometer (NICE, 2004). This is because it is possible to delay or prevent patients from developing severe case of COPD is identified before they lose their lungs functions. Oxygen therapy is another treatment for COPD as the patients with this condition has high
Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases also known as lung cancer is a condition of slow irreversible progressive airway obstruction which gets worse over time. This includes several obstructive diseases of the lungs, including chronic bronchitis, asthma, emphysema, cystic fibrosis and pneumoconiosis. The outcome varies with the consequences with COPD. Approximately 12 million people in the United States have been diagnosed with COPD. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), COPD is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is in the top five principal cause of death in the U.S. The disease is an abnormal inflammatory reaction in the lungs with limited airflow. COPD characteristically arises around the age 35. Smoking continues to be the main source of COPD, but is not the only known root cause. In many studies, smoking explanations for at least three fourths of COPD cases ("Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease | University of Maryland Medical Center," n.d.). Stopping smoking has been known to improve lung capabilities and help to prevent death from COPD. Genetic conditions and introductions to airborne toxins, irritants and gasses are correspondingly involved in the growth of the illness. A complete treatment plan could comprise of lifestyle changes, one or more medications, patient education, oxygen therapy respiratory rehabilitation, and surgery ("Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease | University of Maryland Medical Center," n.d.).
In order to treat this disease, smokers need to participate in smoking cessation which involves the most important step, to stop smoking. Medications to help treat COPD include bronchodilators, such as inhalers, which relax muscles around the air way. Inhaled steroids can reduce air way inflammation and help prevent exacerbations. Lung therapies include oxygen therapy which will help increase blood oxygen. If severe enough, surgeries such as lung volume reduction surgery, lung transplants, and a bullectomy may be
COPD is an irreversible progressive lung disease that makes it harder for people to breath. According to the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (2015), COPD is the third leading cause of death in the United States.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (http://www.thehealthsite.com/diseases-conditions/copd/001/) is considered one of the most common causes of death in the world today and, it appears that most of the patients are active smokers. However, according to researchers, the pulmonary disease can affect everybody, not only people who smoke.
The most crucial part in any treatment plan for a COPD patient is to stop smoking. By continuing to smoke after a COPD diagnosis could cause your symptoms to worsen and the treatment plan to fail. Medications are another way to treat symptoms and complications. Some of the medications are used on a regular basis or on an as needed basis (PRN). Another treatment is lung therapy, which are often used for moderate to severe cases of COPD. Surgery is also an option for people who the medication has not sufficiently helped or people with severe forms of emphysema. Surgery could be a lung transplant and lung volume reduction
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) refers to a recurring illness of the respiratory system that makes it difficult to breathe by restricting the flow of air in and out of the lungs. COPD includes chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and other lung conditions.
All over the world, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a very significant and prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality, and it is increasing with time (Hurd, 2000; Pauwels, 2000; Petty, 2000). Due to the factor of COPD being an underdiagnosed and undertreated disease, the epidemiology (Pauwels, Rabe, 2004) is about 60 to 85 % with mild or moderate COPD remaining undiagnosed (Miravitlles et al., 2009; Hvidsten et al., 2010).
The World Health Organization (WHO) (2006A) defines COPD as a disease state characterized by airflow limitation that is not wholly reversible. The airflow limitation is usually both progressive and associated with abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles or gases. John's chronic bronchitis is defined, clinically, as the presence of a chronic productive cough for 3 months in each of 2 successive years, provided other causes of chronic cough have been ruled out. (Mannino, 2003). The British lung Foundation (BLF) (2005) announces that chronic bronchitis is the inflammation and eventual scarring of the lining of the bronchial tubes which is the explanation for John's dyspnea. The BLF (2005) believe that when the bronchi become inflamed less air is able to flow to and from the lungs and once the bronchial tubes have been irritated over a long period of time, excessive mucus is produced. This increased sputum results from an increase in the size and number of goblet cells (Jeffery, 2001) resulting in John's excessive mucus production. The lining of the bronchial tubes becomes thickened and an irritating cough develops, (Waugh & Grant 2004) which is an additional symptoms that john is experiencing.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, also known as COPD, is the third leading cause of death in the United States. COPD includes extensive lungs diseases such as emphysema, non-reversible asthma, specific forms of bronchiectasis, and chronic bronchitis. This disease restricts the flow of air in and out of the lungs. Ways in which these limitations may occur include the loss of elasticity in the air sacs and throughout the airways, the destruction of the walls between air sacs, the inflammation or thickening of airway walls, or the overproduction of mucus in airways which can lead to blockage. Throughout this paper I am going to explain the main causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and ways to reduce COPD.
Current guidelines developed by Global Initiative for COPD (GOLD) recommend a maintenance therapy either with a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) or a long-acting beta agonist (LABA) in symptomatic patients