In agriculture, a sickle is an essential tool for harvesting crops, necessary for a process that sustains life; however, in the medical field, hearing one’s doctor use the word to describe his or her cells can unleash a wave of terror. Sickle Cell Disease, commonly known as SCD, is a genetic blood disease that is called as such because mutated red blood cells become sickle-shaped (“Sickle Cell Disease”). This genetic mutation greatly impacts life throughout the entire world, though it is continuously a problem in the United States. According to Monique Laberge, “As of 2014, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) estimated that [the disease] affects 70,000-100,000 people in the United States.” Currently, in North America, …show more content…
As previously stated, Sickle Cell Disease is a genetic disease, and the sickle cell mutation works to warp the hemoglobin in red blood cells (Eckman). For all humans, there are three types of hemoglobin, all of which appear in the body at different ages and stages in life; subsequently, they are all affected by this genetic mutation (Laberge). This means that even as the hemoglobin in a sickle cell patient’s body changes with age, the disease will always exist in his or her red blood cells. Even worse, Sickle Cell Disease will never be localized—located in only one area of the body—because as an oxygen-carrying protein, hemoglobin bonds with red blood cells to travel throughout the body and aid the cellular respiration process (Simone). However, it would be wrong to assume that the entire protein is changed when a person has SCD. In fact, hemoglobin is made up of three parts: heme, alpha globin, and beta globin (Simone). A Sickle Cell Disorder Patient will have perfectly normal, healthy heme and alpha globin, but a single nucleotide of DNA is changed to make the amino acid adenine become thymine in chromosome 11 in beta globin as it creates a mutated protein named sickle hemoglobin (Laberge). Only a small part of the DNA is changed, one allele, in one out of thousands of proteins in the human body, but it is still enough to drastically affect any person’s health and welfare. It does so by significantly changing the physical structure of red blood
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Sickle Cell Anemia is a very serious disorder and people suffer from it every day. It is a genetic disorder that causes the hemoglobin in the red blood cell to distort and form into a sickle like shape. The name comes from the shape of the blood cell after it is mutated. A person who has sickle cell anemia got it from inheriting from the parents. It is the most common inherited disorder in the United States. It is also has four other names this disorder can go by HbS, Hemoglobin S Disease, SCD, and Sickle Cell .(https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov)the blood cell is formed wrong turning it into a sickle or crescent shape. Sickle cell is only a disorder. It can also be treated a lot of different ways.
“In the United States, it's estimated that sickle cell anemia affects 70,000–100,000 people, mainly African Americans” (NHLBI, NIH, Who is at risk for sickle cell anemia). SCD is a disease that is a serious disorder in which the body can make normal blood cells and sickle shape cells. Sickle shape cells can block the blood flow in your vessels and cause pain or organ damage also put you in risk for infections. SCD has no cure available but there are many treatments out there to deal with the complications of it. From over years treatments did get better from way back in the day doctors have learned. Sickle cell disease has lack of attention and funding because it’s only affecting
Sickle Cell Disease is an illness that affects people all across the globe. This paper will give a description of the sickness through the discussion of the causes, symptoms, and possible cures. Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a "group of inherited red blood cell disorders."(1) These disorders can have various afflictions, such as pain, damage and a low blood count--Sickle Cell Anemia.
Sickle cell disease is a disease that is most prevalent in people of African descent along with people of Mediterranean and Middle Eastern origin. This disease is known to affect about 70, 000 Americans and about 2 million people carry the trait (meaning that, they carry a single gene mutation).
Health care disparity with sickle cell Disease Patient’s Thesis Statement. Barriers to racial health care equity include the health care system (insurance, funding), the patient (poor health literacy, fear, mistrust), the community (awareness, advocacy), and the providers (bias, attitudes, expectations, stereotyping). Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most prevalent genetic hematological disorder worldwide predominantly affecting populations of West African and African Caribbean descent, as well as populations of Asian, Middle Eastern, and Mediterranean origins (Burne, 2008). It affects about 80,000 people in the United States and is the most common inherited blood disorder (O’Cconnor, 2014). It affects 1 in every 500 births of African
Sickle cell crisis is an acute form of sickle cell disease where pain and sickling are extensive (Byar, 2013). SCD is a genetic disease that predominantly affects black people of African decent (Gersten, 2016). Abnormal hemoglobin chains are the main issue with SCD (Byar, 2013). Normal hemoglobin chains are comprised of 99% hemoglobin A (HbA) however, in SCD an abnormal form of the gene, hemoglobin S (HbS) is present in approximately 40% of total hemoglobin (Byar, 2013). In order for a person to be born with SCD, both parents must carry the abnormal gene, HbS (Byar, 2013). HbS is extremely sensitive to the changes in oxygen amount of the RBC and when exposed to decreased oxygen the HbS cause the RBC to distort and become sickle-shaped,
Each year in the US, an average of 75,000 hospitalizations are due to sickle cell disease, costing approximately $475 million. Sickle cell disease is also associated with significant mortality. Among children, the primary causes of mortality are bacterial infections and stroke. In adults, it is more difficult to attribute specific causes to mortality, but it appears that individuals with more indicative disease are at risk for early mortality.
This mutation paper is to give information on the Sickle Cell disease. This is a negative disease to have because the Sickle Cell Disease decreases the health of the person that has the disease and limits what they can and cannot do. Sickle Cell Disease is a red blood cell disease that causes ab normal hemoglobin to from in the veins. Hemoglobin is the protein that carries oxygen throughout the body to help with the respiratory system. The cause of the genetic mutation is inheritance or getting the disease from the parents the disease is found on chromosome 13 while the hemoglobin is still in beta phase on gene HB A. The disease typically shows symptoms within the first 5 to 6 months of birth and being diagnosed with Sickle Cell Disease. The symptoms include painful swelling on the hands and feet, and Jaundice, which causes a white color to form under the eyes, and turns the skin color yellow.
In this article, sickle cell anemia is defined as a hereditary disease that destroys red blood cells by causing them take on an elongated and rigid "sickle" shape. In addition, a different type of hemoglobin called Hemoglobin S, is the protein in red blood cells that carry oxygen throughout the body. This protein starts to wrap around other red blood cells when oxygen is lacking to form a helical shape. Once this happens the cells cluster together and elongate and the cells start to "sickle". A person who has sickle cell anemia can only get it if both of their parents carry the sickle cell trait, if only one parent has the trait then there children are at risk for having the trait.
Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is an inherited disorder that produces sickle or crescent shape red blood cells. Thus, the mutated erythrocytes result in an inadequate supply of oxygen being transported throughout the body. Research shows that among those affected the most with the sickle cell gene are African Americans. In recent years, we have seen a decrease in mortality and morbidity rates as a result of new approaches to treating the disease. The more we understand the pathophysiology of sickle cell anemia, the more we learn about developing therapies for genetic disorders such as SCA. In this paper, we will briefly discuss what sickle cell anemia is and possible treatments for people with sickle cell anemia such as gene therapy and new drugs.
The term sickle cell infection (SCD) depicts a gathering of acquired red platelet issue." Normal red blood cells are shaped like discs or donuts. They are soft and flexible so they can easily move through very small blood vessels"(anonymous, 2015).Individuals with SCD have anomalous hemoglobin, called hemoglobin S or sickle hemoglobin, in their red platelets. Hemoglobin is a protein in red platelets that conveys oxygen all through the body. The most well-known sort is known as, sickle-cell frailty (SCA) and there is A few Types of Sickle Cell Sickness: Hemoglobin SS, Hemoglobin SC, Hemoglobin SD. In the Unified States, a great many people with sickle cell illness (SCD) are of African family line or recognize themselves as dark. About1 out of 13 African American children is
Sickle cell disease is a chronic condition that a person can inherit from their parents in which it effects the globular structure of the patients red blood cells. A more sickle shaped structure, which can alter a person’s blood flow, replaces the more common globular structure. This impairment in blood flow can lead to blood clots, severe debilitating pain and damage to vital organs such as the liver, kidney and spleen. This disease currently affects over 90,000 people in the United States, with the majority of them being African American and
Sickle cell trait is the heterozygous state of the sickle cell gene, also called sickle hemoglobin (HbS) (DynaMed, 2015). The sickle hemoglobin (HbS) is an abnormal hemoglobin resulted from an atypical mutation of a normal hemoglobin. Heterozygous individuals are carriers of the sickle cell trait, and they are usually asymptomatic (DynaMed, 2015). There are no interventions or referral indicated for infants. The risk factors for sickle cell gene include ancestry from Africa, Caribbean, Central and South America, India, Mediterranean, and the Middle East (DynaMed, 2015). Although Sickle cell trait is a benign condition, studies have found that under extreme conditions such as severe
Sickle Cell Disease, also known as SCD, is a group of genetic red blood cell disorders marked by abnormalities in the hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells made up of alpha and beta chains that helps to deliver oxygen throughout the body. Unlike normal red blood cells that have a circular, biconcave shape, sickle red blood cells have hemoglobin S which causes them to become stiff, sticky and shaped like sickles. Usually normal red blood cells would move smoothly through small blood tubes, but with the shape of sickle red blood cells, movement through blood vessels will be difficult and they may stick together causing a clog in the flow of blood, oxygen, and even healthy, normal red blood cells. Oxygen deprivation causes erythrocytes to form this sickle shape. “The sickle cell mutation is caused by a single nucleotide effecting a change in the β-globin gene, resulting in the substitution of valine for glutamic acid as the sixth amino acid of β-globin.”
Sickle-cell disease majorly affects the hemoglobin that is present in our blood. The job of hemoglobin is to help transport oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the cells throughout our body. Hemoglobin is present specifically in our red blood cells. Each red blood cell contains two hundred and eighty million hemoglobin molecules. Red blood cells normal shape is a biconcave shape because of the lack of many organelles and a nucleus. The shape is so important to a red blood cells functioning that if it is not shaped normally it has major consequences. The shape helps them to fit through capillaries easier and also allows for an increased surface area which results in easier gas exchange. Sickle-cell disease is a genetic disease that causes issues in the oxygen/carbon dioxide carrying hemoglobin molecules that are present in our red blood cells.