A case study of spinal cord injury

1454 WordsJul 4, 20146 Pages
Instructor: Dr. Daniel Kifle June 16, 2014 A Case of Spinal Cord Injury 1. Describe the functional anatomy of the spinal cord using the following terms: white matter, gray matter, tracts, roots and spinal nerves. The spinal cord consists of a superficial White matter and a deep Gray matter. The white matter consists of myelinated axons, which form nerve tracts and the Gray matter consists of neuron cell bodies, dendrites and axons. The white matter in each half of the spinal cord is organized into ventral, dorsal and lateral columns. Each column is subdivided into tracts also called pathways. A collection of axon inside the CNS is called a tract but outside the CNS it is called a nerve. Spinal nerves arise…show more content…
Quadriplegia is paralysis to some degree in all four limbs. In this type of paralysis, the abdominal and chest muscles can also be affected, resulting in difficulty breathing, coughing, or clearing the chest. 5. Define the terms dermatome and myotome and explain how each relates to SCI. Spinal nerves have motor fibers and sensory fibers. The motor fibers innervate certain muscles, while the sensory fibers innervate certain areas of skin. A skin area innervated by the sensory fibers of a single nerve root is known as a dermatome. A group of muscles primarily innervated by the motor fibers of a single nerve root is known as a myotome. Myotomes are necessary for proper motor functioning; making it possible to bend the knee, straighten the elbow, flex fingers, and manipulate other muscle groups. Nerve fibers allowing for the sensation of touch or feeling pain to a corresponding sensory sector of the skin are dermatomes. These nerves originate from the spine and therefore can be useful in spinal injuries to evaluate the level of deficit. Pain, lack of sensation, or abnormal functioning of dermatomes can help pinpoint spinal nerve damage. Each myotome (muscle) and dermatome (region of skin) of the body is supplied by a particular level or section of the spinal cord and by its corresponding spinal nerve. There are eight cervical nerves, twelve thoracic nerves, five

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