Achievement Gap In Urban Education

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Children who live in poor urban neighborhoods are disproportionately likely to be members of racial and ethnic minority groups and are at greater risk for school failure
(Ludwig, Ladd, & Duncan, 2001). In urban regions, Hispanic and Black students are half as likely as non-Hispanic Whites to complete college and graduate from high school or have high school diplomas (Ludwig, Ladd, & Duncan, 2001; Ortiz & Heavy-Runner, 2003).
Although educational programs have been introduced to address the achievement gap in low-income and urban communities, the educational outputs of these areas remain below the national average (Tierney & Jun, 2001; Ng, Wendell & Lombardi, 2012). For example, the percentage of adults with a bachelor’s degree in Camden city

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