In 1783 America fully gained their independence from England. With America becoming a free nation, they had to address new issues that came their way from 1787-1816. Some issues were harder to face than others, but in all America successfully addressed main problems. From 1787-1816 the United States successfully addressed the Democratic Republican and Federalist political parties, and through treaties and purchases, foreign relations.
In 1798 the United States was involved in an undeclared war with France. “The United States again stood on the brink of war with a major European power, only this time instead of Great Britain the hostile nation was France.”(Hay 141) Later on the Federalist Party passed a series of four laws which were called the Alien and Sedition Acts and the Federalists saw foreigners as a deep threat to American security. There were a series of four acts that were adopted to alienate aliens. The first of these acts was the Naturalization Act which was passed by Congress on June 18. This act required that aliens be residents for 14 years instead of 5 years
In 1789 George Washington was elected as the First President of the United States of America under the Constitution. In the following years after George Washington's administration was John Adams and succeeding him was the Third President of the United States Thomas Jefferson. George Washington and Thomas Jefferson's' administrations contributed to establishing a stable government after the adoption of the Constitution. They strengthened the national government by passing important legislature, peaceful international affairs and economic plans.
The major presidential candidate in the election of 1800, were John Adams, running for his second term in office, against his old friend, the democratic-republicans
In the late 1700's, John Adams was President. Adams was a member of the Federalist Party. The Federalists were in control of the Congress. Adams and other Federalists were Pro-British and the Republican Party was Pro-French. Thomas Jefferson led the Republicans. Federalists were worried that the influx of French into the country
In 1790, the United States had just recently broke free from the British crown and united under the cause of liberty. But in spite of this, Americans saw political rifts brought about by the rise of political parties. The rise of political parties in 1790 was caused by general distrust, disagreements on policies, and constitutional disagreements between the Federalist and Democratic-Republican parties, which were led by Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson, respectively.
The Federalists political party mostly consisted of the upper class people of the United States, such as merchants, and they wanted the Constitution to be ratified. However, they didn’t want the central government to be too powerful. This led to them allowing the states to continue to hold many of their powers. The Federalists realized that the Articles of Confederation failed to keep the country together yet, with all the power in the State’s hands, the United States was failing as a nation, so they thought that the Senate would be able to properly represent the State’s views so they could still contribute to the decisions made by the government. One federalist leader was Alexander Hamilton. Alexander Hamilton, New York, was a powerful man who fought for what he thought was right for the constitution. He disagreed with George Clinton, and this made him one of the strongest advocates in the government ("Alexander Hamilton, Federalist Leader"). Hamilton was Secretary of the Treasury under George Washington’s rule, and in the year 1790, he proposed that the debt of the Continental Congress should be paid in full ("Alexander Hamilton, Federalist Leader"). By his work here, it proves that he was pro-banking. John Jay also proved himself to be a federalist leader. He wrote five of the Federalist Papers, until he got sick. George Washington wanted him to be the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court ("John
The presidency of George Washington was a difficult pair of terms to follow. John Adams tried to follow the precedent that the first president had set, but the second president only managed to polarize the nation among two parties: the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists. Although his decisions are today looked at with mixed feelings, at the time John Adams fell into popular disfavor. After his singular term due to the opposition of the Jeffersonian Anti-Federalists and the Hamiltonian Federalists (members of Adams’s own party), there was a power vacancy clearly waiting to be filled which would lead to the spot of the third President of the United States. The first twelve years of the nation and its first two presidents had been marred by stirrings of factionalism and tension. However, the two presidents after Adams, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, would do much to lessen these issues due to educated and intelligent policy-making, in addition to a great deal of fortunate circumstances.
Signed into law by President John Adams in 1798, the Alien and Sedition Acts consisted of four laws passed by the Federalist-controlled Congress as America prepared for war with France. These acts increased the residency requirement for American citizenship from five to fourteen years, authorized the president to imprison or deport aliens considered "dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States" and restricted speech critical of the government. These laws were designed to silence and weaken the Democratic-Republican Party. Negative reaction to the Alien and Sedition Acts helped contribute to the Democratic-Republican victory in the 1800 elections. Congress repealed the Naturalization Act in 1802, while the other acts were allowed to expire.
When Washington retired from his presidency, non-stop issues arose between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson about government policies, economic policies, and foreign policies that led to the creation of political parties. The First Party System started in 1790s and ended in early 1800s. The Federalist Party led by Hamilton and John Adams and the Democratic-Republican Party led by Jefferson and James Madison. Hamilton and Jefferson had different political views, but both wanted what was best for the country.
Conflicting views and contrasting ideologies have always existed throughout the history of United States politics. Alexander Hamilton, who led Federalist Party, believed that a powerful central government was necessary while Thomas Jefferson, who led the Jeffersonian Republican Party, favored an agrarian nation with most of the power left to the states. Although Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson were similar in that they both harbored good intentions and tried to keep the best interests in mind for the future of the United States, their policies were drastically different. Without doubt, both of their contrasting ideas served a vital role in forming the government.
During Washington’s second term, the French Revolution was starting to end. This split the two parties further apart when Washington wanted to be neutral and Jefferson, his Secretary of State, wanted to support the new French Republic. Something that also led to
Whenever Jefferson and John Adams pursued the organization in 1796, political gatherings had encircled under the imprints Republicans and Federalists. By 1804 the presence of political social events required an amendment that changed the option to allow president/VP tickets on the count. The Federalists overpowered the national government through most of the eighteenth century. Despite President Washington's attempts at unity, political differences wound up being unreasonably significant making it impossible to convey understanding. The Republican Party rose in power and made limitations to Federalist game plans, regardless of Jefferson's confirmations in his first inaugural address that Americans were all republicans and all federalists.
In the book “A Magnificent Catastrophe” the author, Edward J. Larson, writes about all of the little details that has occurred in the First Presidential Campaign in the 1800s. He begins his book with how the two parties, the Republicans (Jefferson) and Federalists (Adams), were going to compete in who will govern the United States now that it is a free country and no longer under Britain’s rule. Although they had at first been friends they soon became enemies because of how they believed the government should be. Jefferson believed that the government should be a populist government that trusted popular rule. While Adams believed that America should have a strong government and that al