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The Nothing that is about Everything
The Nothing That Is A Natural History of Zero by Robert Kaplan is a book literally a book about the number zero and how it was formed. He takes the reader on a journey through time and shows the transformation of not just zero but numbers in general from multiple countries and empires. Kaplan starts off his book by describing zero and what its possibilities are in the world. Then he jumps into the Sumerians who were one of the first to create a number system comprised of stick that had a triangle on the top. Slowly their number system evolved but never had a zero. They started making place holders for the larger numbers and assigning different sizes to the shapes in order to show a larger amount. He then moves on to the Greeks who he credits the discovery of zero. It is believed that the O came from the Greek word omicron which is the first letter of ouden or nothing. Zero was not originally used to show the absences of something but as a place holder or a space between other numbers. It was then used by Greek astronomers as anything from minutes and seconds to degrees but still not as zero today. It wasn’t until 730 AD that the Greeks used an informal way to show zero. They would count using their fingers and zero was a relaxed hand. The Greeks even created a
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The Indians created their own type of arithmetic called Bakhsali and they had to learn to solve fractions and multiply them. Hindus was one of the people to uses this math to solve many different problems like foiling and solving for x. Another important figure is Donald Knuth who came up with exponents they were originally pictured as 3 3. The more arrows placed in between the threes the more exponents were stacked on each other. Later on Kaplan shows a property of zero, he is setting quadratics equal to zero so they can be

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Among the many scholars working in the House of Wisdom, there was Al-Khawarizmi, known as the father of algebra. Born around 800 in Baghdad, al-Khwarizmi worked in the House of Wisdom as a scholar. Being involved in the center’s translation of ancient scientific knowledge helped him develop a unique knowledge of the accumulated wisdom of the world. His importance lies in his discoveries of mathematical knowledge which was later transferred to Arab and European scholars. His masterpiece, a book of clear explanations of what would become algebra, was his entire life’s work compiled into one collection of information. The word algebra comes from the Arabic word, al-jabr, which means “completion”. In his work, al-Khwarizmi explains the principles of solving linear and quadratic equations, the concept that an equation can be created to find the value of an unknown variable. Another crucial work of al-Khwarizmi’s was The Book on the Art of Reckoning of the Hindus, which introduced the numbering system used in the Islamic culture to the west. This is the numerical system that is still used today and offered many advantages over the existing Roman numerals. An

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## Mesopotamia Legacies

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The start of these advancements goes along with their written language. Through their language of Cuneiform, they have symbols for all sixty numbers in their base for math. The Sumerians based their math off of 60, which is why there are only sixty numbers (Shuttleworth 2010). These used this math for everything even astronomy and mathematic functions. This math allowed them to keep track of larger amounts of things easier and even keep track of records for things like accounting.

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## Evolution of Intelligence

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Logical-Mathematical Intelligence is the ability to “calculate, quantify, consider propositions and hypotheses, and carry out complete mathematical operations” (Gardener 1). Symbolic deductive and inductive thinking patterns are the result of this. Tallies of the Lebombo Bone portray the use of the oldest mathematical instrument of existence, found in 35,000 B.C.E. at the age of the Neanderthals. For counting the Neanderthals had 29 markings upon this baboon bone. A later Ishango Bone was found in 20,000 B.C.E. This shows that the complex algorithms solved today started from the counting upon bones in Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens.

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## What Was The Mayan's Most Remarkable Achievement?

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After looking over the symbols they created and how they were simple and understanding, I realized that the Mayans were way ahead of their time. All they used were dots and lines and as a zero, it was just a rugby ball looking thing. Instead of creating 400 different symbols to create just the number 400, they used four symbols and just changed the combination of them differently. Forty used three symbols, one rugby ball symbol and two single dots. Four hundred used three symbols too, two rugby ball looking symbols and just one single dot. By far more the one of the better in complex number systems. Compared to the Aztecs, who had feathers for 400 and finger symbols for 1, the Mayan’s number system was easy, with just dots and lines.

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## Muslim Contributions Dbq Essay

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According to document 4, Al-Khwarizmi, a Muslim mathematician wrote a textbook in the 800’s about algebra which was later adopted throughout Europe. Muslim mathematicians also adopted Arabic numerals from Indians and used them in place-value system. (Doc. 4) These mathematical advances also led to the creation of simple yet complicated structures. Also, after using their observations and their understanding of mathematics, Muslim scholars were able to make an advancement in mapmaking. They used astrolabe and armillary sphere to help study skies and make calculations for calendars and maps. (Doc.

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## Southernisation And Southernization

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Although the west did have its own cultivation of knowledge, the majority of westernized thinking originated in India and other Southern Asian countries. The people of India invented Hindi numerals. Arabs gave these numerals the title, ‘Hindi numbers’. These numerals included the concept of zero and allowed mathematicians to make fast, accurate calculations. Once Arabs had begun using the Indians numerals and concept of zero, Europeans were then introduced to these concepts and called them ‘Arab numerals’. Chinese used Indian mathematical concepts but advanced the ideas which allowed them to expand in that field of knowledge. The methods that the Chinese used based off of the ideas of Indians, shows how methods were spread. Since the

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## Mayan Number System Dbq

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The Mayan number system is their most remarkable achievement. In document C it says”They were one of the first cultures in the world to develop the idea of zero.” Document C also says”The Maya used a positional system based on 20 rather than 10.” The first piece of evidence shows that The Mayan number system is their most remarkable achievement. The second

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## The Greatest Accomplishments Of The Mayan Calendar

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The Mayan were a truly advanced civilization for their time. One of their great accomplishments was their numbering system. The Mayan zero was represented by a shell like picture

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## Western Humanities Midterm Essay

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Islamists wrote many influential books on mathematics of algebra that we still use today. One of the books described how to write numbers in calculations using the place-value decimal system which is what we use today. This concept was developed in India in A.D. 600’s which was translated and adopted by Arabic mathematicians. About 300 years later this book was translated into Latin and it became the major source for European academics to learn the new system. This system is known as the Hindu-Arabic system which is taught to schoolchildren around the world. It’s amazing that a system of calculations was brought to Europe from practically the other side of the world. I wonder how long it would have taken to figure out the same system without Muslim involvement.

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## Comparing The Seven Wonders Of The Ancient World

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A similarity between the ancient Egyptians and Greek is the use of what is now known as geometry. It is currently thought that the Egyptians had introduced the earliest fully-developed base-ten numeration system, this system was introduced around 2700 BCE, and was based. On people having ten fingers (story of mathematics). A famous document of the time was the Rhind Papyrus, created 1650 BC, and contained information and exercises to show the “Correct method of reckoning, for grasping the meaning of things and knowing everything that is, obscurities and all secrets.” (Washington.edu). The Egyptians had also approximated the area of

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## Why Did The Mayans To Count And Do Math

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The Mayans used a number system based on base 20, because of counting on fingers and toes. As you can see in the picture to the right, a zero was a shell shape, one was a dot, and five was a bar. They used single dots until they got to five which changed to a bar. Then they used bars and single dots. This is a really neat and interesting way to write numbers.

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## Mayan Achievements Essay

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The reason to why their number system is truly their most remarkable achievement is because it would already be hard to make a number and then have to give it a name of what you or anyone would call it. Not only did they make their own number system, but they also understood. It can be very difficult to make your own language or number system and understand it. It is also very remarkable because at their time not a lot of cultures had the knowledge of the zero, they did.

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## Paradox Of Nothingness Research Paper

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Due to the long weekend we only had two classes this week. I was absent during the first class but was able to meet up with a classmate to get caught up on the information I missed. During the start of class for the week, the topic of “nothingness” was discussed. Nothingness may be the lack of what we expect. Without nothing there is no change, and nothing exists in the physical world. To speak of nothing is a paradox; a paradox is a self- contradictory statement that leads to a conclusion that seems senseless, hence why when there is nothing there is something. There is no experiment that could support the idea that there is nothing, due to the fact an observation of any kind would imply the existence of an observe, therefore something. This

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## Medieval Islam Essay

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The mathematics had been developed for four thousand years, and Muslim inherited mathematics from Egyptian, Mesopotamians, Sumerian and Babylonian. Greek geometry and Hindu arithmetic and algebra reached at an early stage in Muslim lands and were translated in centers such as Gondeshapur and Baghdad. Starting out at intellectual center of Islam, they soon criticizing those concepts and formulation by finding inaccurate and inconsistent information and adapt their own ideas. At the same period in Western Europe, they still use Roman numerals and abacus to calculate numbers. The Babylonian already had concept of bases sixty computation with place value numerals. Muslim then developed a decimal arithmetic based on place value and joint concept of zero. In the ninth century, Banu Musa brothers who were three gifted sons of Musa, Muhammad, Ahmad, and Hassan ibn Musa lived in Baghdad studied problems in constructing interrelated geometrical figures. Later the characteristic of those line, space of geometrical shape was given intense study and utilized sophisticated geometry in designing waterwheels, in improving farming equipment, in developing new type of weapon used at war. Another person who make significant contribution on mathematics is Muhammad ibn al-Khwarizmi, a Persian born in the eighth century. He was the first person who originated both terms “algebra”, and

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## History Of Math Essay

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The Egyptians used sums of unit fractions (a), supplemented by the fraction B, to express all other fractions. For example, the fraction E was the sum of the fractions 3 and *. Using this system, the Egyptians were able to solve all problems of arithmetic that involved fractions, as well as some elementary problems in algebra. In geometry, the Egyptians calculated the correct areas of triangles, rectangles, and trapezoids and the volumes of figures such as bricks, cylinders, and pyramids. To find the area of a circle, the Egyptians used the square on U of the diameter of the circle, a value of about 3.16-close to the value of the ratio known as pi, which is about 3.14. The Babylonian system of numeration was quite different from the Egyptian system. In the Babylonian system-which, when using clay tablets, consisted of various wedge-shaped marks-a single wedge indicated 1 and an arrowlike wedge stood for 10 (see table). Numbers up through 59 were formed from these symbols through an additive process, as in Egyptian mathematics. The number 60, however, was represented by the same symbol as 1, and from this point on a positional symbol was used. That is, the value of one of the first 59 numerals depended henceforth on its position in the total numeral. For example, a numeral consisting of a symbol for 2 followed by one for 27 and ending in one for 10 stood for 2 × 602 + 27 × 60 + 10.

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