# Analysis On The Data Collected For The Present Study

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Introduction This chapter presents the results of the analysis on the data collected for the present study (i.e., pre-writing test, immediate-post-writing test, and delayed-post-writing test). It describes statistical analysis of the differences in the number of each cohesive device (i.e., reference, substitution, ellipsis, and conjunction) in the three tests conducted within and among three treatment groups (i.e., direct feedback group, coding with underline group, and control (no feedback) group). The short- and long-term effects of WCF are examined by comparing the pre-writing test with the immediate-post-writing test and the delayed-post-writing test. The statistical analyses in this chapter are conducted to investigate the following …show more content…

For the second research question, the pre-test and the immediate-post-test essays are compared within each group by using the paired t-test. In addition, the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to investigate the difference in the number of each cohesive device between the three treatment groups. The same statistical analysis was conducted for the fourth research question; the pre-test and the post-test essays are compared within groups as well as the number of cohesive devices in the post-test essays was compared between groups. Before proceeding with the statistical analysis for the research questions, homogeneity of the pre-test essay between groups was verified; the researcher conducted the one-way ANOVA to ensure that there is no significant difference in the number of cohesive devices employed in the pre-test essay. The significant level was set at 0.05 (<0.05). Except for the difference, no other significant difference was found for the coded group. As for the direct group, the results showed no significant difference in any kinds of cohesive devices. Table 10 Difference in the Long-term Period Within Each Experimental Group WCF Devices Test N Mean SD t p Direct Reference Pre 27 0.74 1.06 -1.4644 0.1551 Post 27 1.19 1.21 Substitution Pre 27 0.19 0.4 0.7004 0.4899 Post 27 0.11 0.32 Ellipsis Pre 27 1.48 0.94 -0.22535 0.8235