The book Dibs in Search of Self is a story of a smart yet very unsocial and withdrawn little boy named Dibs. The story, written from Dr. Axline’s point of view, shows how Dibs goes from being completely unable to function in a normal classroom setting with other children to discovering himself through play therapy. Nowhere is the book is Dibs specifically diagnosed or even characterized as being autistic. This is not surprising as autism was not really widely understood or diagnosed until the 1960’s; this book was written in 1964. There are many correlations between this book and some of the theories and topics discussed in Berger’s text. I would like to address some of these correlations now.
Berger says, “Children who developed …show more content…
This is exactly how Dr. Axline is working with Dibs. She is focusing on letting Dibs play, as he sees fit while she observes and minimally participates. Berger also describes programs that stress attachment. Dr. Axline, through gradual progression and participation, slowly builds a rapport and therefore attachment with Dibs. This allows Dibs to become comfortable in his own time, under his own rules. This is important for autistic children who may have issues with trust and attachment.
Axline, V. M. (1964). Dibs in search of self. New York: Ballentine Books.
Berger, K. S. (2009). The developing person: Through childhood and adolescence. New York: Worth
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In the early 1900’s autism was a completely misunderstood concept and any child who was living with it was assumed to be living with “childhood schizophrenia” and developed much slower than children without autism. A four year study of Donald Triplett gave Dr. Kannar a better understanding of what autism was and what it caused certain people to do. The main question was, does it affect the child’s development? Living with autism can affect a child’s development due to the fact that they don’t have a long attention span, can cause them to have a repetitive behavior, along with trouble in social situations whether it be verbal or non verbal.
Autism Spectrum Disorder is a growing problem throughout the entire globe. Autism Spectrum Disorder is defined as deficits in social reciprocity and communication, as well as unusual, restricted and repetitive behaviors (Lord). Such behaviors may include running back and forth, excessive cleaning, noises, and clapping. These also vary greatly with age and ability, and the notion of ASD has been introduced to recognize these diversities (Firth). Autism was first discovered in 1943 when Leo Kanner observed 11 children with several common traits such as, impairments in social interaction, anguish for changes, good memory, belated echolalia, over sensitivity to certain stimuli (especially sound), food problems, limitations in spontaneous activity,
Some of the characteristics of those who have autism consist of repetitive thinking and compulsive attention in things like symbols, languages and numbers. The cause of autism is not yet known as of now, however, many people consider it a genetic disorder which takes place at birth. Christopher Boone has one specific form of autism known as Asperger’s syndrome, his disorder is reflected through his fascination with mathematics, detail, astronomy and colours; his thoughts on routine and violent hatred to interaction, even though it is not specified in the book. In 1943 Leo Kanner a psychiatrist published a paper surrounded around the research of 11 young patients that fit into a fine variety of diagnostic principles that he measured out to be autistic. During Kanner’s career he has seen fewer than 150 cases that go with the description he came up with of the syndrome, he theorised that autism was very unsupported and rare. Autism turned out to be a foundation of embarrassment and several of those who were diagnosed were certified; in the 1970s everything started to change (Kennedy Krieger Institute and the Simons Foundation, n.d.). Hans Asperger and Leo Kanner both used the word autism, in the 1940s when they were doing
Leo Kanner (1943) believes autism is a result of emotional deprivation. He notes that parents of autistic children are intellectually and analytically oriented, but lack emotional warmth (Meyer, Chapman, & Weaver, 2009).Some psychodynamic theorist believe autistic children were born normal, but became autistic after experiencing painful interactions with hostile or cold parents (Hansell & Damour, 2008). The term autistic implies a failure to effectively relate to the environment. Autistic individuals are perceived as elusive and distant (Meyer, Chapman, & Weaver, 2009). Behavioral programs are most effective with autistic children and are used to teach them language, communication skills, self-care, and adaptation to the community (Hansell & Damour, 2008).
“Autism is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by severe and sustained impairment in social interaction, deviance in communication, and patterns of behavior and interests that are restricted,
Even as adults, sometimes we tend to question whether or not there is something more to us. In years past, and often still is, the subject of autism was unknown, and often misunderstood. Many times autistic tendencies are just dismissed as either bad behaviors or defiance. Many times the individual also has an underlying condition such as attention deficit disorder. This article sheds some light on that subject.
Are you able to comprehend the confrontations faced by an autistic child? In the book “the curious incident of the dog in the night time” by Mark Haddon, You are able to understand the challenges faced by the main protagonist Christopher Boone. In order to gain a sense of maturity an individual must overcome difficult challenges. This will be demonstrated by examining Christopher Boone’s ability to learn to become independent and understand social interaction and emotions.
Waltz (2002) stated, “Autistic spectrum disorders are a medical puzzle. Although the symptoms can be seen, they are hard to define medically or treat. (p.1)
In this paper, I will be discussing the disorder of Autism, a sever disorder that affects the function of the brain. It causes problems in such areas as social contact, intelligence, language and speech impediments, along with ritualistic or compulsive behaviors, as well as different responses to the environment that an autistic individual may have different than individuals not having autism would exhibit. I will be discussing generally about the history and description of autism. Also I will be discussing the charactistics that mark an autistic individual, the actual treatment that an autistic person may receive, risk factors that an autistic person may encounter, and interventions/treatments activities that an individual who has autism may take part in. I feel that by doing all of this that I will gain a greater sense of understanding for individuals with autism. I will be giving this information to you by going through each topic that I have outlined in the introduction and explaining what each means and how they affect an individual with autism.
The term “autism” has been used for approximately one hundred years. Autism comes from the Greek word “autos” which means “self.” Self applies to autism because people are taken away from their social life and isolate themselves. A Switzerland psychiatrist, Eugen Bleuler, was the first person ever to use the word autism in 1911 towards symptoms of schizophrenia. From 1940 through the 1990s, doctors have had many theories on how autism affects children. They came to the conclusion that autism medically affects each child differently. Towards the 1980s
Autism has undergone significant definition changes in the past. The term was first used in 1912 by the Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler from the Greek word for self—autos—in his description of patients with “schizophrenic thinking divorced from both logic and reality” (Rorvik 249). However, an established set of guidelines for diagnosis would not be established until 1943, when Leo Kanner, a German émigré to the United States, wrote “Autistic Disturbances of Affective Content”, a landmark essay in which he “described eleven children who, from infancy, had seemed to cut off from their parents…[and] existed in their own, often impenetrable world” (Pollak 250). The common features that he noticed in those eleven children were
Chapter 1 focuses on autism, Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) and other Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Described in 1943 by Dr. Leo Kanner, autism (also known as autistic disorder, childhood autism, or infantile disorder) is one of the PDDs along with Rett's disorder, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD) referred to as Heller's syndrome, Asperger disorder, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). Rett's is a rare genetic abnormality affecting brain development in girls. There are treatments available, but there is no known cure. Asperger disorder affects an individual's ability to socialize and communicate effectively. Individuals with Asperger disorder may be socially awkward and have a compulsive
According to the CDC, autism is “a developmental disability that can cause significant social, communication and behavioral challenges (Facts About Autism, 2016)”. Autism was first discussed in 1943 by Dr. Leo Kanner, after he observed 11 children who had fixations on the inanimate environment rather than people (Quick Facts About Autism). It affects about one percent of the population, and is