According to the Foundation of Therapeutic Recreation textbook (Robertson, long ,2008 p.284) “autism is a neurological disorder that effect a person ability to communicate, to understand language, to play and to relate to others. A diagnose of autism is given when a person exhibits 6 or more of 12 symptoms listed across three major areas social interaction, communication, and behavior.” These symptoms can start as early as childhood. The Prevalence is 2% of the population and is it is more common in boys than girls. Also, there is no known cause for autism but has to have a genetic link that can be inheritable. Autism is a higher risk among children as the age of parents increases. Also, autism can limit emotional, social, and physical in daily functioning.
Due to social limitation children with autism find it hard to make friends and usually limit their physical contact with adults. They find it difficult to communicated or engage in a social interaction. They are also self-focused and doesn’t show much interested in social interaction. It impacts their behavior as well such as they might get extremely upset when there change. They might be involved in self-injury behavior such as spinning around in circles or biting their hands. They are interested in facts rather than people which can interfere with social relationships. The characteristic of this disorder is problems in social interaction, restricted impaired verbal, nonverbal communication, and repetitive behaviors.
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Autism is a developmental disorder, which is characterized by a dyad of difficulties in a) communication and social interaction and b) restricted interests and imagination (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Individuals on the Autism Spectrum might find it challenging to understand what other people think or what the reasons for their behaviours are, as their ‘theory of mind’ may not be well developed (Schuwerk, Vuori & Sodian, 2015). It is possible that this is why they might behave in socially inappropriate ways, being unable to differentiate between different contexts, while they might also find it difficult to make friends. Moreover, it is likely that they are fond of routines, repetition and structure (Carnahan, Musti-Rao, & Bailey, 2009), as they might be nervous with unknown, new situations. In addition, some of them might not do eye contact with other people, whereas some others might not endure to be touched and might have a difficulty developing speech (Jordan, 2005). Individuals on the Autism Spectrum might sometimes be prohibited to initiate conversations and might struggle with finding different ways to play and behave, due to the possible deficit of imagination, which in some cases might result in them having a narrow sphere of interests. Nevertheless, it should be noted that this group of people is rather heterogeneous, as characteristics of autism may differ from one individual to another (Gwynette, 2013). Another point is that people with Autism
Autism is a form of neurodevelopment disorder in the autism spectrum disorders. It is characterized by impaired development in social interactions and communication, both verbal and non-verbal. There is an observed lack of spontaneous acts of communication; both receptive and expressed, as well as speech impairments. A person diagnosed with Autism will also show a limited range of activities and interests, as well as forming and maintain peer relationships. The individuals will display limited interests, which are often very focused and repetitive. He or she is likely to be very routine oriented and may show behavioral symptoms such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, aggressiveness, and self-injurious behaviors.
Developmental psychology is a scientific approach that focuses on the ways in which individuals change and evolve across their lifespan, beginning with birth and ending in death. This specific study of the mind and behavior tends to concentrate on the time period from birth to adolescence because this is when the majority of development occurs. This branch of psychology revolves around various types of changes, including behavioral, cultural, social, psychological, biological, and genetic factors, all of which greatly impact the way a child will develop into an adult. Autism spectrum disorder is considered to be the most severe developmental disorder due to its ubiquitous and difficult nature. (“APA.org | Autism,” 2016) This disorder involves a delay or deficiency in those developmental areas, especially in regards to physical, emotional, and social weaknesses. ASD affects approximately 1 in 68 children according to the CDC, and this disorder is becoming more prevalent as time goes on, despite the immense amount of research being done in this area. While it seems to affect more and more children each year, ASD has shown to be 4.5 times more common in boys than in girls, which is another concern regarding the varied development between boys and girls. (“CDC | Data and Statistics” 2016) I find this disorder to be extremely interesting because of how little is actually known about it, as well as how much the symptoms can
Autism is a rare disease that can be characterized by a “neurodevelopmental disorder categorized by the inability to relate to and perceive the environment in the realistic manner.” (Anthes, 1997) The signs of autism are mainly found in infants to young children usually between the ages of newborn to two years. The main symptoms that are discussed are “impairment in social interaction fixation of inanimate objects, inability to communicate normally, and resistance to changes in their daily routine.” (Anthes, 1997) Autism is a very understood disease but one thing most people do not know is that autism not only effects a child’s life mentally and physically, it also effects their social ability to have friends, play normally and even grow up
“Autism is a disorder characterized by severe difficulties in social interaction and communication and with unusual behaviors.” (Dr. David Pauls 2003). This disorder is assumed to be caused by genetics, environmental toxins and/or prenatal care. (Harvard Medical School 2013). Social behaviors/interactions affected by Autism is the ability to process learning, communication and family/peer relationships. Autism is a disorder in which its cause makes it impossible to prevent and it takes a toll on its victim’s everyday life tasks.
Autism is a developmental disability that affects all areas of behavior and perception. Approximately 10 out of every 10,000 children are diagnosed with autism and four out of five are males. Autism is the third most common developmental disability, more common than Down Syndrome. Children with Autism are characterized by impairment in several areas of development such as: Cognitive, Language, Play/Socialization skills and exhibit many challenging behaviors. Behavior Patterns of Autism:
Autism causes atypical social behaviors such as social interaction and social skills. people with autism have a lack of reciprocity and they do not share enjoyments, achievements, and interests with others. Sometimes they can have difficulty making friends. People with autism are often confused about the appropriate social behaviors.
Scientifically, autism and autism spectrum disorder, also known as ASD, are commonly used names for difficult disorders that have to do with brain development. Disorders like these are grouped by someone’s difficulty in social interaction, repetitive behaviors, and nonverbal communication. To the people who are diagnosed with this disorder and the families it affects; it is so much more than just science.
Autistic infants often show little or no interest in other people and lack typical social behaviors. For example, they may not smile at their mother's voice or make eye contact with caregivers. Autistic children fail to develop normal relationships with their parents, brothers or sisters, and other children. Often they seem unaware of the needs and feelings of other people, and may not respond if another person is hurt or in distress. They also fail to make friends.
Autism is defined as the brain disorder that begins in early childhood and persists throughout adulthood. Autism affects three areas of human development: (1) verbal and nonverbal communication, (2) social interaction, and (3) creative or imaginative play. Autism is considered a severe disorder and developmental disability that prevents individuals from properly understanding what they see, hear and sense. The cause of autism remains unknown. Current theories indicate a problem with the function or structure of the central nervous system. This essay overviews the history of autism and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). It provides an idea of the population and causes of autism. It takes about the program services and the current operational issues related to autism.
Neurological disorders are complex in nature and often the least understood. Given the recent boom in imaging technology and other diagnostic methods, it is now possible to see more clearly into the scope of neurological development and accurately determine the etiology of these diseases. One of such disorders is Autism; a multifactorial condition impairing normal brain development. It affects many aspects of development, including social behavior, cognitive ability and communication skills1 and is commonly diagnosed in children before the age of three1. The symptoms of this condition can vary greatly between individuals; hence its classification as a spectrum disorder. Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome and pervasive
Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) that is very complex and involves many different and separate physical and mental disorders. Researchers have long been puzzled by autism, or childhood autism as it is often referred to. This severely disabling disorder affects approximately 80,000 children in the United States and is usually diagnosed by therapists and psychologists before the onset of two and a half years of age.
Autism is a mental condition, present from early childhood, characterized by difficulty in communicating and forming relationships with other people and in using language and abstract concepts (“Autism” Def). It’s a disability that affects a person’s communication skills and/or changes in behavior. Autism is usually diagnosed before three years of age and has a lifelong persistence. The causes of this disorder is unclear and there is currently no cure for it. There are two core characteristics of autism. The first being a deficiency in social communication and social interaction. The second is a restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests, and activities. Clinical features of autism include walking on tiptoes, lack of eye contact, extreme dislike of certain foods or sounds, poor communication skills, repetitive behaviors, and
What is Autism? How is Autism classified? What causes Autism? Why do Autism happen? There are some many questions about Autism, and what it is. Many of those questions are still unknown. Everyday researchers are exploring reasons for these questions.
Autism is a complex disability, as the way it manifests in each child differs in severity across numerous characteristics. Children diagnosed with autism qualify to receive special services and a “free, appropriate public education in the least restrictive environment” under the federal legislation, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (Hunt & Marshall, 2012, p. 15). Autism was added to IDEA in 1990 as a new disability category. The legislation defines autism as “a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age 3 that adversely affects a child’s educational performance” (Hunt & Marshall, 2012, p. 301). The “Rules for the Provision of Special Education” from the State Superintendent of Public Instruction of Washington state also outlines eligibility and individualized education programs for children diagnosed with autism (Rules for the Provision of Special Education, p. 11 & 46). Furthermore, the DSM diagnoses autism when a child shows “qualitative impairments” in social interaction, communication, and “restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities” (Hunt & Marshall, 2012, p. 302).