Barbara Carper's Four Patterns Of Knowing In Nursing

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Nursing is a learned profession. It begins as a first day nursing student who is unknowledgeable about protocols and procedures utilized to care for another human being with individualized disease processes. Four years ago, I started in nursing school as an unknowledgeable person and blossomed into an educated nurse that follows protocols and procedures while taking care of patients daily. Patricia E. Zander focuses on the different aspects of nursing by involving Barbara Carper’s “four patterns (ways) of knowing in nursing” (Zander, 2007, p. 8). Different types of knowing are described as the basis for nursing care. I believe a nurse is guided through each way of knowing through different steps in their nursing career. In the beginning, a nurse is timid and feels inadequately prepared to being a nursing career; therefore, the new nurse will rely more on empirics. The nurse will rely more on tested practices verses using experience. For example, at my first job, I worked with a preceptor for several weeks learning the different protocols and procedures applicable to patient care for the unit. I trusted the knowledge of my preceptor because she had been a nurse for several years and had worked on the unit for several years as well; therefore, I used her knowledge as a way to base my nursing care in the future. Empirical knowledge is used first because that is what is taught and already known. After gaining experience, a nurse becomes more comfortable with applying

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