# Basic Concept Of Image Processing

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III. NEIGHBORHOOD OF PIXEL. In Image processing, Image can be defined as a connection on number of pixels. A pixel P can be represented as P (x, y) where, x, y are the coordinates of the pixel. There are two main classifications in an image 1) 2 - Dimensional. 2) 3 - Dimensional. In 2- Dimensional image, there will be only two coordinates x and y. whereas, in 3- Dimensional there will be a z- axis too. The connection types vary in each model. 2-D image consists of pixels that are connected in 4, 6, 8 connection models. The 4- connected pixels are connected to every edge in horizontal and vertical ways. This can be given by (x+1, y), (x-1, y), (x, y+1) and (x, y-1). This system of connection has only 4 points, so it is called …show more content…

For this procedure, a recent algorithm was developed by Otsu which is called as Otsu’s algorithm. This algorithm can find the exact location of the connected pixels with same properties and the borders of the regions. The main parameters that are to be considered in this function are ratio of component area, aspect ratio, extent, component area of the border area to the plane area. The measurement of these factors are very crucial for the subsequent recognition of the elements. Why we are using segmentation in this project? For example, we want to find the area of a stone in kidney (considering the medical), initially the stone image will be picked up and when finding its area, the edges of the stone or the border line of the stone should be marked. After marking the desired ranges, the tool segments the particular stone’s border line from the rest of the background. Fig: - 4.1 Calculation of area of Stone in Kidney. From the above show figure, we found the diameter of the stone 0.08cms. Now from this measurement the doctors can find out the area of the stone and can prepare for the operation on removal of that stone. Segmentation has two goals. The principal objective is to break down the picture into parts for promote examination. In basic cases, the