Bio156 Lab 5 Essay

Decent Essays
Define the following terms:

Cellular respiration (aerobic respiration) (2 points)

Cellular respiration is the process by which cells get their energy in the form of ATP. There are two types of cellular respiration, aerobic and anaerobic. Aerobic respiration is more efficient and can be used in the presence of oxygen. Aerobic respiration, or cell respiration using oxygen, uses the end product of glycolysis in the TCA cycle to produce more energy currency in the form of ATP than can be obtained from an anaerobic pathway.

Fermentation (anaerobic respiration) (2 points)

Fermentation is a metabolic process converting sugar to acids, gases or alcohol. It occurs in yeast and bacteria, but also in oxygen-starved human muscle
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The ETC takes place in the mitochondrial matrix and needs oxygen.

What is the primary energy molecule in cells? (5 points)

ATP is the main energy molecule in cells and has a unique function as an energy transferor. This molecule contains nitrogenous base adenine connected to three molecules of phosphorus. The last 2 phosphates are high energy bonds. When ATP releases the terminal phosphate, energy is released while forming a new compound ADP. ADP can be remade with another phosphate to form ATP again

List the equation in word and chemical form for each of the following processes: (6 points)

Cellular respiration: C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6 H2O + 36 or 38 ATP

Alcoholic fermentation: C6H12O6 → 2CO2 + 2C2H5OH + 2 ATP

Lactic acid fermentation: Plant and fungal cells produce alcohol as a result of fermentation and animal cells produce lactic acid

Does glycolysis require the presence of oxygen? Please explain your answer. (5 points)

No, glycolysis does not require the presence of oxygen. It occurs in the cytoplasm of all cells. a single glucose molecule in glycolysis produces a total of 2 molecules of pyruvic acid, 2 molecules of ATP, 2 molecules of NADH and 2 molecules of water. More ATP molecules are generated in step 7 and 2 more in step 10. This gives a total of 4 ATP molecules produced total with a final total of 2 ATP molecules remaining.

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