Biological Evolution

Decent Essays

In the Origins of Society By Natural Selection (2008), Turner and Maryanski provide us with a unique survey of societal change throughout history, through connecting the biological and anatomical changes of early Hominoids to modern humans, and how these changes had played an important role in shaping the survival rate, success, and patterns of social change throughout history. They starte by highlighting in the first two chapters these biological changes and how they became an important part of the success story of the human race, through allowing hominoids to develop language and strong ties. In the chapters that followed, they examine each of the societal types, starting with hunters and gatherers, horticultural, agrarian, and finally industrial …show more content…

The authors argue that this relationship was not fully appreciated in social science research, where the focus was mostly on looking at human behavior in light of sociocultural forces and organizations. This limited take represents a short coming in social sciences, and while sociological forces explains a high level of variety within the social organizations, biological forces are still important in providing us with insight into human nature and human behavior. With that being said, the authors warn us against reducing sociology into biological determinism, but rather they argue that the field is incomplete without taking biological factors into consideration. The reason for emphasizing biological influence is due to the fact that humans’ and hominoids’ societies were and are similar in many ways to ape societies, where many of these social behaviors survived into human …show more content…

They continue the argument in favor of the importance of strong ties in helping hominids into organizing into hordes. In fact, the early hominids who didn’t establish strong ties and who ventured to the savanna eventually went extinct. It was the development of strong ties between mothers and children, as well as, weak and strong ties among members within the horde, that allowed the group to be more cohesive and formidable to predators, and that’s what was a crucial element that allowed early homo to survive the savanna compared to other groups who lacked these ties and networks. However, even with these changes, weak ties were still a main hindering factor for the survival of the early hominids. Apes in the forest and hominids in the savanna were still showing the effect of weak ties in their reactions to danger and predators. The only hominids that survived to be included in the fossil record were the ones who lived on the edge of the savannas, because they had the ability to develop these strong ties, while remaining ape like at their biological

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