Essay about Biology: DNA Forensics

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DNA forensics is a division of forensic science that focuses on the use of genetic material in criminal investigation to answer questions pertaining to legal situations, including criminal and civil cases. Through DNA testing, law enforcement officers are able to identify human remains or the individual responsible for a crime. DNA testing is a highly advanced scientific process that involves replicating the human DNA sequence to create a genetic map of an individual. Because of its reliability, DNA testing has become a significant factor in criminal cases. However, it has also been identified as having the potential to violate privacy and constitutional rights. The DNA identification process consists of five stages. These five stages…show more content…
Recently, DNA testing has been employed to create a genetic database of endangered animal species. Using this information, scientists have even cloned animals. When life arose on Earth about 4 billion years ago, the first types of cells to evolve were prokaryotic cells. For approximately 2 billion years, prokaryotic-type cells were the only form of life on Earth. The oldest known sedimentary rocks found in Greenland are about 3.8 billion years old. The oldest known fossils are prokaryotic cells, 3.5 billion years in age, found in Western Australia and South Africa. The nature of these fossils, and the chemical composition of the rocks in which they are found, indicates that these first cells made use of simple chemical reactions to produce energy for their metabolism and growth. Eukaryotic cells evolved into being between 1.5 and 2 billion years ago. Eukaryotic cells appear to have arisen from prokaryotic cells, specifically out of the archaea. Indeed, there are many similarities in molecular biology of contemporary archaea and eukaryotes. However, the origin of the eukaryotic organelles, specifically chloroplasts and mitochondria, is explained by evolutionary associations between primitive nucleated cells and certain respiratory and photosynthetic bacteria, which led to the development of these organelles and the associated explosion of eukaryotic diversity. Today Prokaryotes
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