“Bipolar disorder, also commonly known as manic depression, is defined as a serious mental illness in which common emotions become intensely and often unpredictably magnified. Individuals with bipolar disorder can quickly alternate from extremes of happiness, energy and clarity to sadness, fatigue and confusion. All people with bipolar disorder have manic episodes abnormally elevated or irritable moods that last at least a week and impair functioning. But not all become depressed ” (American Psychological Association, 2015). Bipolar disorder can vary in each individual. The symptoms fluctuate in pattern, severity and rate of recurrence. Some people are more susceptible to either mania or depression, while others change proportionately between the two types of episodes. Some have frequent mood disruptions, while others live through a few throughout their lifetime.
Bipolar Disorder is a brain disorder that is characterized by abnormal changes in mood, energy and activity levels (“National Institute of Mental Health”). Manic-depressive illness is also another name that bipolar disorder is commonly referred to as (“National Institute of Mental Health”). This disorder has four basic types including, bipolar I, bipolar II, cyclothymic, and any other which do not perfectly fit the first three. All four of the types have episodes of extreme highs, manic periods, and extreme lows, depressive periods. Symptoms can range greatly and depend on what type of episode the affected is having. Manic episodes can include, but are not limited to: having extraordinarily high amounts of energy, activity,
This source gives the readers an in-depth overview of Bipolar Disorder and the causes of having the mental health issue. There’s a great distinction between the ups and downs people experience and bipolar disorder. Due to the ups and downs teens and children experience, bipolar disorder is hard to diagnose during those early years. The National Center of Biotechnology Information’s research program is run by Senior Investigators, Tenure Track Investigators, Staff Scientists, and Postdoctoral Fellows which makes the source credible. The source contained
For an episode to be categorized as manic, the patients’ mood has been irritable or abnormally elevated for at least 1 week. A person must also exhibit at least 3 of the following symptoms (4 if the mood is only irritable): extreme feelings of personal greatness; a decreased need for sleep, marked talkativeness; distractibility; extreme focus on a goal-directed activity; reports of ‘racing’ thoughts or a flight of ideas; or excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have a high potential for painful consequences (i.e. sexual indiscretions or unintelligent business investments). As in the criteria for a depressed episode, the DSM-IV specifies that these symptoms should not be better explained as being a side effect of a drug or illness to qualify as a manic episode. These symptoms must interfere with the person’s normal functioning and must not meet the criteria for a mixed episode. As with adults, childhood-onset bipolar disorder has many faces. Children with Bipolar I Disorder have episodes of mania and episodes of depression, sometimes there are long periods of normal moods between episodes. Adults usually tend to have more depressed episodes than manic episodes. However, some children will have chronic mania (symptoms of mania lasting for long periods of time or marked by frequent recurrence) and seldom experience a depressed episode.
Bipolar Disorder or manic-depressive disorder is a disorder characterized by highs, manias, and lows, depressions, and can therefore be easily distinguished from unipolar depression, a major depressive disorder in DSM-5, by the presence of manic or hypomanic episodes (Miklowitz & Gitlin, 2014). Bipolar disorder is generally an episodic, lifelong illness with a variable course (American Psychiatric Association, 2010). There are two classifications of bipolar disorder; bipolar I disorder and bipolar II disorder. If the episodes are primarily manic but there has been at least one depressive episode, the diagnosis is bipolar I disorder (Early, 2009). If the episodes are primarily depressed but there has been at least one episode of hypomania, increased mood that is more euphoric than normal but not quite manic, the diagnosis is bipolar II disorder (Early, 2009).
As I stated earlier, bipolar disorder consists of shifts in mood, energy, and activity levels. This can mean someone can seem very sad and depressed for a long period of time and then a period of extreme happiness. These can be shown in mood or behavioral changes and can be shown in how well they are able to concentrate, how much sleep they are getting, or even if they have thoughts of suicide (NIMH). Although the easiest way to spot bipolar is through extreme mood swings, it can still be present when such mood swings are less noticeable. It is important to look out for even the smallest mood swings because if they are frequent enough it can be a sign of one having bipolar disorder.
the exact cause of bipolar disorder is unknown but several factors may be involved, such as biological differences, some seem to have physical changes in their brain, neurotransmitters seem to play a significant role in bipolar disorder, bi polar disorder is more common in people who have a relative such as a sibling or parent with the condition, researchers are trying to find genes that may be involved in causing bipolar disorder. (Mayo clinic staff, ND).
Because Bipolar Disorder is a mood disorder, the causes are unknown. (Bipolar Disorder) Even though they don’t know the root of the illness, doctors have found reasons that could have contribution. One of these would be genetics and its most common with people who have relatives that have already been diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder. Also, after research doctors have discovered that patients with bipolar disorder seem to have physical deviations with their brains. Another factor could be a chemical imbalance with neurotransmitters. They also have discovered that stress, alcohol, and drugs could also initiate the first manic episode. (Mayo Clinic)
Bipolar Disorder also known as Manic Depressive Illness involves outstanding mood swings. The individual has periods of depression, and periods when they feel either unusually good or pressured and irritable. It affects 1-2% of the population. Genetics plays a significant role. About 15% of children with one bipolar parent develop the disorder.
Because bipolar disorder has such a strong, mostly negative impact on the child and their families,there is an effort in the field of psychological study to identify children at risk. Studies look at what makes a child at risk for depression including having depressed parents, environmental situations, and learning maladaptive social skills. Also life events can play a role in which children are at risk, children of abuse, divorce – especially if it is a hostile situation – all of these situations could be triggers. Studies are also looking at genetics, is bipolar disorder
At least 2 million Americans suffer from bipolar disorder, more commonly known as manic-depression. This illness usually begins in adolescence or early adulthood and continues throughout life. Although it may come into affect at any time, most individuals with the disorder experience their first mood episode in their 20’s. However, manic-depression quite often strike teenagers and has been diagnosed in children under 12.
Early twenties is the common age for the onset of bipolar and it occurs much less compared to depressive disorders. According to the book, bipolar is an underdiagnosed disorder and an estimated 10 percent or more of the people diagnosed with a depressive order will eventually be diagnosed with bipolar. There are three types of bipolar and those are bipolar I, bipolar II, and cyclothymic disorder. Gender doesn’t appear to effect bipolar I, but bipolar II and rapid cycling is more common in women and women have a higher chance of recurring symptoms. Like mentioned before, genetics contribute largely to the chance of being bipolar. In identical twins, if one is diagnosed the other twin has up to 72 percent of also being diagnosed compared to 14 percent in fraternal twins. Individuals with bipolar have an increased sensitivity to reward, which can fester goal oriented mania. The deactivation of this hypersensitivity can cause depressive symptoms, low energy, hopelessness, and loss of interest. Psychological and social factors can contribute to the build up of the symptoms such as a major stressful event. Rumination can lead to the depression phase where as perfectionism and being critical of one’s self can lead to