Carper's Fundamental Patterns Of Knowing In Nursing

Good Essays

What determines if one is considered to be a “good” nurse? Perhaps if tested, what is the criteria to which one would be graded? According to the founder of modern nursing, Florence Nightingale, “The very elements of what constitutes good nursing are as little understood for the well as for the sick.” (, n.d.). Since the beginning, the nursing process has been continually evolving in the pursuit of better accommodating the needs of its patients and their families. “Nursing is a dynamic profession and therefore needs continual exploration of the various concepts linked to its educational and evaluative processes.” (Zander, 2007, p.7). In 1978, a woman named Barbara A. Carper wrote an article titled “Fundamental Patterns of Knowing in Nursing” that has since been used as one of the many “backbones” of modern nursing (Carper, 1978). “In 1978, Carper wrote that nursing sought to develop a holistic, individualistic, and therapeutic model of practice that took the profession away from the autocratic, reductionist, and behaviorist characteristics of the medical model.” (Zander, 2007. p.7). Carper simplified this approach to ways of knowing in nursing into four categories: Empirics, Ethics, Esthetics, and Personal (Carper, 1978). During the following, these attributes will be discussed in further detail and examples will be provided of each. First, an understanding of each of these attributes is needed in the interest of gaining further insight on how they

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