Children with high-functioning ASD (HFASD) demonstrate difficulty initiating and maintaining conversations, deciphering how others feel from nonverbal cues, interpreting the intentions of others, asking/responding to questions, and interacting in games or other activities (Bray et al., 2010). Children with HFASD may appear insensitive, and self-centered, or socially disinterested (Waugh & Peskin, 2015); and typically demonstrate average cognitive abilities, yet have significant social deficits (DeRosier et al, 2010). Social skills interventions aim to teach children the social pragmatics necessary to interact and build relationships. There are many different treatment options to improve social skills in children with HFASD such as social skills groups, social skills training with parent implemented intervention, and social stories/social narratives (Cappadocia & Weiss, 2011). This literature review will discuss these three different interventions used for improving the social skills of children with HFASD. All of the articles that were looked at were peer-reviewed.
In 1943, Leo Kanner observed a small group of children with a condition he called Infantile Autism, launching the scientific study of autism. There were few studies about autism through the 1960s, but “behavioral research began demonstrating that children with autism were capable of learning, if taught systematically and intensively using operant learning methods” (Thompson, 2013). Through the 1970s and
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Many treatment approaches have developed different ways of dealing with the challenges of autism. First, there is the theory of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA), which consists of giving a child a specific task, which teaches skills from basic ones to more complex ones, such as social interaction. Children taking this approach, work 30-40 hours a week with a trained professional. (West 66) It may be emotionally difficult for the child, and his/her parents to dedicate so much time, yet it is worth it. However, it has been proven that ABA methods have shown consistent results in teaching new skills and behaviors to children with autism. (West 68)
Autism Spectrum Disorder is a growing problem throughout the entire globe. Autism Spectrum Disorder is defined as deficits in social reciprocity and communication, as well as unusual, restricted and repetitive behaviors (Lord). Such behaviors may include running back and forth, excessive cleaning, noises, and clapping. These also vary greatly with age and ability, and the notion of ASD has been introduced to recognize these diversities (Firth). Autism was first discovered in 1943 when Leo Kanner observed 11 children with several common traits such as, impairments in social interaction, anguish for changes, good memory, belated echolalia, over sensitivity to certain stimuli (especially sound), food problems, limitations in spontaneous activity,
Some of the characteristics of those who have autism consist of repetitive thinking and compulsive attention in things like symbols, languages and numbers. The cause of autism is not yet known as of now, however, many people consider it a genetic disorder which takes place at birth. Christopher Boone has one specific form of autism known as Asperger’s syndrome, his disorder is reflected through his fascination with mathematics, detail, astronomy and colours; his thoughts on routine and violent hatred to interaction, even though it is not specified in the book. In 1943 Leo Kanner a psychiatrist published a paper surrounded around the research of 11 young patients that fit into a fine variety of diagnostic principles that he measured out to be autistic. During Kanner’s career he has seen fewer than 150 cases that go with the description he came up with of the syndrome, he theorised that autism was very unsupported and rare. Autism turned out to be a foundation of embarrassment and several of those who were diagnosed were certified; in the 1970s everything started to change (Kennedy Krieger Institute and the Simons Foundation, n.d.). Hans Asperger and Leo Kanner both used the word autism, in the 1940s when they were doing
Since it first identified as a distinct disorder by Leo Kanner (1943), autism studies continued in order to explain its causes. Many theories and clinical studies evolved. However, none of them seems to be conclusive. Although it was interchangeably considered as part of schizophrenia, recently it is defined as a distinct disorder that has its own characteristics. The field of management is still challenging. In this paper, I am going to discuss different theories that explain autism. Then, I am going to summarize different learning approaches that are used for autistic children based on the
Research has found that on average 33% of youths in the juvenile justice system are identified as disabled and eligible for special services. However, there has been little research studying the characteristics or prevalence rates of youth with ASD in the criminal justice system. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly have impairments in communication, social skills, deficits in abstract thoughts and specific interests that could prevent individuals with ASD from understanding legal and illegal behaviors. It is also suspected that the high rates of psychiatric comorbidity associated with ASD, for example ADHD, may increase the risk of delinquency in youth with ASD.
According to the U.S. Department of Education, autism is defined as a disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interactions and verbal and nonverbal communication. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may also display attention deficits, engage in repetitive behaviors, resist environmental changes, have unusual sensory experiences, and may exhibit inappropriate behaviors that have adverse impacts on educational performance (Delano, 2007). The incidence of children identified with ASD has steadily increased and has thus changed the dynamics of education. Due to the number of children diagnosed with autism dramatically increasing over the last fifteen years, the demand for research-based
If students with ASD are not taught social emotional skills they will be greatly effected as adults. Research done has suggested that adults with ASD will often experience social isolation. Approximately one-half to two-thirds of these adults have no close friendships, and in the cases where friendships do occur they are often less close and less supportive than friendships had by adults in the general population (Orsmond, Shattuck, Cooper, Sterzing, and Anderson 2013). Studies have been done in Canadian and European populations and have found that fewer than half of adults with ASD participate in social events in the community such as attending church or special interest groups that would provide social opportunities (Orsmond, Shattuck,
A parent knows their child, that being said over the past two weeks I noticed my 20 month child has become very agitated, displays no eye contact with neither his father nor I any longer. We have noticed a major change in his behavior, sleeping habits and a lost in language skills. The changes in our son have sparked our full attention and concern. As parents, our sole responsibility is our son and his upbringing.
Social skill instruction for students with ASD should target individual needs. However, despite this variability, there is some
Carnazzo et al. (2002, article: 5 of 8) studied social skills interventions for students with ASD, and also included typical peers in training sessions. One area of their research, encouraged participation in peer mediated groups (using modeling, prompting, and reinforcement procedures) to improving interaction in cooperative learning groups. The second area of their research focused on ten-minute social skills lessons on play skills followed by unstructured play, where students were prompted and reinforced for the targeted behavior. The findings suggest that social skills training with peers is effective for increasing cooperative learning and play in the inclusive classroom. When peers are used as trainers they are taught to prompt, ignore inappropriate behaviors, engage in conversation, monitor skills, and reward appropriate behaviors (Christian, Luiselli, Russo, & Wilczynski, 2008). Michelle
According to the CDC, autism is “a developmental disability that can cause significant social, communication and behavioral challenges (Facts About Autism, 2016)”. Autism was first discussed in 1943 by Dr. Leo Kanner, after he observed 11 children who had fixations on the inanimate environment rather than people (Quick Facts About Autism). It affects about one percent of the population, and is
Autism Spectrum Disorder was first discovered in 1943 by psychiatrist Leo Kanner, who had a study of eleven children “who showed a marked lack of interest in other people, but a highly unusual interest in the inanimate environment”. Originally this study connected Autism Spectrum Disorder with an early form of schizophrenia, which led to the belief that Autism Spectrum Disorder could be caused from “bad parenting”, however, due to various research scientists we now know that this is not the case (“What is Autism”).
I agree with you, tantrums are one the most unpleasant behaviors in ASD and non-ASD children, I would say they are parent’s worst nightmare and a problem that all parents fear to deal with. Unfortunately, people believe that children are not disciplined at home when overreact in public. Children do tantrums as a way communication, to express themselves. But with play therapy, music, and breathing techniques can be improved. I used play therapy with my son, when we started the PCIT (parent child intervention therapy), I did the time-out square. When my son would do tantrums in public, I would pull out a blue handkerchief and place it on the floor in a specific corner for him to do time-out. I only did it about three times. When I knew
Children with Asperger’s (AS) and high functioning autism (HFA) are commonly known to struggle with social interaction skills with others at a very young age and throughout their entire life. In school they are known to be outcasts because they are a lot different from their typical peers. Although they have a high level of cognitive functioning, they have severe impaired social skills which they can lack and have difficulty with “all areas of academic, emotional, and social development.” It is not uncommon for these children to be unable to develop close relationships with family members, friends, or colleagues, in the future. They often they lack the ability to achieve normal relationships with others. According to (Rao et al., 2008) “social skill deficits identified in children with AS/HFA include: lack of orientation
autism was first described in the 1940s. Leo Kanner in the United States and Hans Asperger in Austria independently published papers describing children with severe social and communicative impairments. Both Kanner and Asperger used the term "autism" (meaning “alone”) to describe the syndromes they had identified. Kanner described children who had impoverished social relationships from early in life, employed deviant language, and were subject to behavioral stereotypies. Asperger’s description identified children with normal IQs and normal language development who suffered from social and some types of communicative impairments. (slaughter)