Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia
Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia is a hematopoietic proliferative disorder associated with a specific defect in the gene (Ciesla 2007, pp. 189). The gene defect is caused due to the translocation of the genetic material between chromosome 9 and chromosome 22 (t9: 22). The translocation prompts to the development of a hybrid gene BCR-ALB in the Philadelphia chromosome, or Ph1. Therefore, this fusion gene mutation affects the maturation and differentiation of the haematopoietic cells (Ciesla 2007, pp. 189). However the introduction of a BCR-ALB particular tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Imatinib has significantly enhanced the survival rate of the patient with chronic myeloid leukaemia (Hochhaus, et al.2015). This essay will briefly describe the diagnosis, treatment and future strategies for chronic myeloid leukaemia.
Diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukaemia in most cases is done on the basis of differential blood count characterised by excess granulocytes (neutrophil, eosinophil and basophil) with typical left shift of granulopoesis (Hehlmann et al.2007). Conformation of CML can be done by identifying if there is a presence of Ph chromosome or BCR-ALB transcript in the peripheral blood or the bone marrow cells (Hehlmann et al.2007). However, if Ph chromosome is not detected conformation can also be done by either reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) (Hehlmann et al.2007). Fig 1: Above figure