Cognitive Disorders And Its Effects On The Brain

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Cognitive disorders involve problems in memory, orientation, level of consciousness, and other cognitive functions (Huang et al., 2015) . These difficulties are due to abnormalities in neural chemistry, structure or physiology originating in the brain or secondary to systemic illness (Huang et al.). Patients with cognitive disorders may show psychiatric symptoms secondary to the cognitive problems, such as depression, anxiety, paranoia, hallucinations and delusions and impaired motor function(Huang et al.). One of the major cognitive disorders is dementia, which results from impaired cognition, due to damage to the brain. Dementia is an umbrella that describes a wide range of symptoms associated with a decline in memory and other cognitive…show more content…
As the US population ages, Alzheimer’s has increased significantly (71%) (AA, 2016). In 2013, there was over 84,000 deaths from AD in the U.S, however in 2016 the mortality rate doubled to 700,000 (AA, 2016). Among people age 70, 61% of those with AD are expected to die before the age of 80 compared with 30% of people without Alzheimer’s (AA, 2016). Most common risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease is age, however additional risk factors include gender (women) and genetic and biological contributions. An estimated 3.2 million women aged 65 and older are living with Alzheimer’s. Among those aged 71 and older, 16 percent of women have Alzheimer’s compared with 11 percent of men (AA, 2016).
The abilities and interest of someone with dementia will change over time. There have been increasing reports of non-cognitive symptoms, including loss of motor function in older persons diagnosed with Alzheimer’s. It is estimated that up to 50% of older persons may have some elements of motor impairments by the age of 80 years, however this would suggest that it would be even a greater percentage for people living with dementia (AA, 2016). Motor impairment can include reduced gait speed, loss of muscle strength and bulk, and reduced balance, as well as dexterity (AA, 2016). Loss of muscle strength and bulk is common in Alzheimer’s patients and is recognized as a prominent feature in older individuals. Morphologic studies
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