Developmental Abnormalities Caused By Zika Virus Infection

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Developmental abnormalities caused by Zika virus infection Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that is transmitted by mosquito and related to Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, yellow fever and dengue viruses (1). Various species of Aedes mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of Zika virus (2). The virus was first found in Uganda in 1947 when a rhesus monkey that was placed in a cage developed a fever and its serum was injected into mice, resulting in the isolation of Zika virus from the mouse brains (3). Humans could also be infected, which was found through serologic studies. In the late 1960’s, ZIKV was found in humans living in Nigeria (4). Serologic evidence also found that the human ZIKV infection spread to other parts of Africa such as Egypt, Tanzania and Southeast Asia such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand (5). In 2007, the Zika virus spread to Yap Island of Micronesia and also caused outbreaks in New Caledonia, Easter Island, French Polynesia in 2013 and 2014 (1,2). ZIKV was reported to cause a widespread epidemic in South and Central America in 2015 (2). With estimated ZIKV infection cases of up to 1.3 million through December 2015, Brazil is the country that is affected the most by the virus (6). The symptoms of ZIKV are headaches, fever, rash and pain in muscles and joints (2). Zika virus was assumed to cause only mild illness and similar to dengue (7). However, during ZIKV epidemics in Brazil and French Polynesia, cases of

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