Distinct behaviours and symptoms have been recognized for each subtype of aggression. Pulkkinen (1996) conducted the first longitudinal study to assess adolescents displaying either type of aggression. In this study he found that proactive individuals tended to display externalizing behaviours in childhood. Those who continued to be proactive had many more problems in adulthood. Specifically, they had adjustment problems throughout their adolescence including conduct issues and non-compliance, and were likely to be involved in criminality later in life. Interestingly, this group did not demonstrate high levels of self-control compared to reactive and non-aggressive participants. Alcohol abuse was more related to proactive aggression rather…show more content… Further research found high scores of psychopathy to be associated with proactive aggression for both children and adults and therefore suggest that proactive aggression could possibly be an indicator of psychopathic behaviours (Kolla et al., 2013). This has been noted through all stages of development. The literature has also shown that proactive aggression tends to be related to behavioural problems, hyperactive behaviour and impulsive acts (Scarpa, Haden & Tanaka, 2010). In previous studies correlations have demonstrated that substance abuse and family violence is also related to proactive aggression (Connor et al., 2004; Frick & Marsee, 2006), while youth who have been a victim of sexual abuse display reactive aggressive behaviours (Connor et al., 2004).
There is additional research that has found callous-unemotional traits to be more common in those exhibiting comorbid typologies of both reactive and proactive aggression (Fanti, Frick, & Georgiou, 2009). They indicate such traits as being predictive of more complex antisocial behaviours, though when looking at the callous subscale, proactive aggression was exclusively strongly related to this trait (Fanti, Frick, & Georgiou, 2009). Literature has noted a large number of individuals who are involved in both typologies of reactive and proactive aggression and are therefore highly aggressive in nature (Frick & Marsee, 2006; Poulin & Boivin, 2000). It is important to note distinct behaviours within each typology and