Different ipolar Disorders

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BIPOLAR DISORDERS Introduction: Bipolar disorder is a subtype of the mood disorder. The patient presents with mood swing fluctuating between mania and depression. It constitutes a broad spectrum of mood disorders that includes bipolar I disorder,bipolar II disorder, cyclothymia (oscillating high and low moods), and major depression. Sex/Age Ratio • The average age at onset is 25 years old . • Rates are similar in men and women . • Late adolescence and early adulthood are peak years of onset. Epidemiology • Bipolar disorder is the sixth leading cause of disability worldwide and has a lifetime prevalence of about 3% in the general population. • Within the United States, African and European Americans have similar rates of bipolar disorder, while Asian Americans have lower rates Causes The causes of bipolar disorder vary from individual to individual. Following are thought to be some of the important causes of this disorder. • Genetic o The risk of bipolar disorder is nearly ten times higher among first degree-relatives • Neurological It is thought to be influenced by o stroke o HIV infection o traumatic brain injury o multiple sclerosis o porphyria o seizure disorder o temporal lobe epilepsy • Hormonal Evidence suggest that there is increased transmission of Dopamine during Manic phase. The role of other neuro transmitters such as Gamma aminobutyric acid and glutamate have been implicated. • Physiological  Hypothesis suggests that Hypothalamic-pituitary

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