Dna Repair Mechanisms And Cell Cycle Control

Decent Essays

Saccharomyces cerevisiaes, or baker’s yeasts, unicellular fungi are useful in understanding genetics and molecular biology, due to the ability to quickly map a phenotype-producing gene to a region in their genome. Yeast mutants are used a tool for the study of cellular function, DNA repair mechanisms and cell cycle control. As a model organism, S. cerevisiae is one of the simplest eukaryote organism, having not only most major signaling pathways conserved, but also consisting of a genome of approximately 12.1 million base pairs in sixteen chromosomes. S. cerevisiaes, like other model organisms, have properties that make them suitable for biological studies: rapid growth, easy mutant isolation, a sequenced genetic system and a versatile DNA transformation system, as homologous recombination is used almost exclusively as their DNA repair mechanism. Fully sequenced back in 1996 by Francis Collins, yeast genes are easily engineered and, through bioinformatics and Next Generation Sequencing, are used to investigate the possible gene functions of all the different genes in the yeast genome. This is done by studying the phenotype of strains with disrupted genes, caused by gene knockout or mutations. Furthermore, S. cerevisiaes are useful as a genome reference towards the sequencing of higher eukaryotic genes. These characteristics allow yeasts to be easily exploited for the analysis of gene regulation and the systemic analyses of structure-to-function relationships of proteins.

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