# Earliest Civilization is the Region of Mesopotamia Because of Their Language of Cuneiform

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A civilization is recognized as such by its form of written language. For this reason, the earliest civilization is recognized in the region of Mesopotamia with their language of Cuneiform. This ancient form of written language was inscribed on clay tablets that still remain in tact and are being salvaged hundreds of thousands of years later. Even more impressive than just writing the language, however, is the ancient Babylonians’ early mathematical discoveries. These were also recorded with cuneiform and recorded on clay tablets, and like the language, served as an early interpretation of mathematical principles that influence arithmetic all over the world today. Dating back to the second and third milennia BC, Babylonians were so …show more content…

The Babylonians used pre-calculated tables to assist with arithmetic. Perhaps the most amazing aspect of the Babylonian's calculating skills was their construction of tables to aid calculation. Two tablets found at Senkerah on the Euphrates in 1854 date from 2000 BC. They give squares of the numbers up to 59 and cubes of the numbers up to 32. Most frequently Babylonians utilized tables of squares and cubes to simplify multiplication. The concept of reciprocals was also first introduced by the Babylonians. Because they did not have a method for long division, they were able to recognize that using their sexiagesimal system of numbers, numbers with two, three, and five, had finite factors of which tables have been found. For numbers not containing one of the finite factors, the Babylonians used approximation reciprocals. The pre-calculated tables method is also how the Babylonians incorporated algebra in their number system. They were the first people to use the quadratic equation, though not in its exact form. They used the form x2+bx=c which, when solved, can be interpreted as x=-b/2-√(b/2)+c which more closely resembles the modern quadratic equation. Using their arithmetic tables of squares, the Babylonians were able to interpret them in reverse to find square roots. Because everything was a real problem, they always used the positive root when solving. Most commonly squares were used for finding