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Energy Pollution

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Introduction Increasing carbon emissions are becoming a large problem when considering global warming. The high energy intensity transportation sector contributes substantially to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and primary energy consumption, with emissions and energy use steadily increasing as the population grows (IEA 2013; Pollet et al. 2012; World Energy Council 2007). More than half of these vehicles are personal vehicles (EPA 2014; Li & Shimamoto 2011) with a substantial percentage (> 90%) of transport energy coming from fossil fuels, which is inherently coupled with GHG emissions and air pollutants (Avci et al. 2015; Ribeiro et al. 2007). Environmental damage, stricter emissions regulations and depleting oil resources causing economic issues have all motivated research on energy transition away from fossil fuels seeing many automotive manufacturers adopting new technologies (Chiara & Canova 2013; Dings, T&E 2011; US EPA 2013). Therefore, a revolution in the automotive and fuel industries will prevail in years to come. It is essential to alter society’s current reliance on fossil fuel based transportation to decrease the large carbon footprint of the transportation sector, therefore the development of alternative sustainable fuels is imperative not only for the protection of the environment, but for the maintenance of energy security. Environmental and economic issues can be addressed by substituting current fossil fuel based transportation with low-carbon,
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