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Essay On Bacocosides

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Aim of the study: To examine the cytoprotective heads of bacosides against H2O2-induced oxidative stress on neuronal (N2a) cells.
Materials & Methods: Cytoprotective properties were determined by measuring neuronal cell viability (MTT assay), intracellular ROS (DCFDA), anti-apoptotic properties (Annexin V FITC/PI, DAPI) and mitochondrial membrane potential (rhodamine 123) using florescence microscopy.
Results: Different concentration of bacosides were treated on the N2a cells and it was observed that 0.4mg/ml concentration does not decreased the cell viability and this concentration was used for further experiments. It was observed that among four individual bacosides, bacosides A3 and bacopaside II have shown the higher cell viability
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However, (H2O2) can react with reduced transition metals, via the Fenton reaction, to produce the highly hydroxyl radical (•OH), a far more damaging molecule to the cell. In addition to forming H2O2, O2•– radicals can rapidly react with nitric oxide (NO) to generate cytotoxic peroxynitrite anions (ONOO–) (Jeffrey et al., 2003). Peroxynitrite can react with carbon dioxide, leading to protein damage via the formation of nitrotyrosine and lipid oxidation. The generation of ROS in normal cells, including neurons, is under tight homeostatic control. To help detoxify ROS, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants including speroxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione, α-tocopherol (vitamin E), catalase, will react with most oxidants. In addition, the antioxidant enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase detoxify H2O2 by converting it to O2 and H2O. However, when ROS levels exceed the antioxidant capacity of a cell, a deleterious condition known as oxidative stress occurs. Unchecked, excessive ROS can lead to the destruction of cellular components including lipids, protein, and DNA, and ultimately cell death via apoptosis or necrosis (Birben et al., 2012; Jeffrey et al., 2003). Indeed the World Health organization (WHO) has initiated global initiatives on neurology and public health in an effort to increase public awareness of the prevalence, severity and cost of neurological disorders with a view to identify possibilities for prevention (WHO 2006). Current
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