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Explaining the Domain Name System (DNS)

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The Domain Name System or DNS is an international address system developed to ensure that every computer connected to the Internet has its own address. DNS assigns addresses to Internet web servers [10]. However, in the DNS system, that address is actually a set of numbers like 173.194.39.78. This set of numbers is called the computer's Internet Protocol (IP) address.
The Domain Name System is most often described as the Internet’s phone book or address book. All of us Internet users use it on daily basis without even realizing it. Its basic task is to convert human-readable website name like coursera.org into its computer-readable numerical IP address like 107.21.240.231.Since such strings of numbers are difficult for humans to memorize, DNS allows you to assign a domain name, such as facebook.com to you IP address. So, the domain name is simply an address on the Internet. It has to be unique just like physical address or phone number.
Computers (and other network devices like smartphones or tablets) use IP addresses to identify each other on the network and route your request to the site you are trying to access. It is just like dialing a phone number to reach the person you want to talk to, but thanks to DNS, you don’t need to maintain your own address book of IP addresses. You will simply connect via DNS server (also called “domain name server” or just “name server”). Domain name system servers match domain names like coursera.org to their associated IP addresses.
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