Nineteenth-century Ireland was the most densely populated country in Europe: in 1800, its population was 4.5 million, and by 1841, it had risen to eight million (Kinealy 15). Yet much of this population existed in condition of sorrow and misery lay in the dependence of the peasantry on just one staple crop, the potato; in western countries like Mayo and Galway, nine-tenths of the people ate nothing else (MacManus 602). Here was a disaster waiting to happen, made worst by the rapid rise in population in the first half of the century which forced the peasants to subsist on smaller plots of land (O Grada, The Great Irish Famine 63).
K.H. Connell, in his paper “Land and Population in Ireland, 1780-1845”, describes and explains the significant population growth in Ireland prior to the famine of 1845 and how the uses of the Irish land changed with the population growth.
Jonathan Swift’s essay, “A Modest Proposal,” works to get the Irish people to resist England. He discusses how Ireland is in bad shape, why England is to blame, and how there are reasonable solutions to these problems.
Religion is everywhere we turn whether we like it or not. Religion is in war; it is in the foundations of schooling and, in many cases, it is in literature. When we first began this course, religion was one of the first topics of discussion in the Declaration of Independence. Religion and how everyone sees God is especially important during the 18th century because it is a time where people begin to visualize God differently. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas observes the troubles of religion, and the troubles of thinking God is on your side. This book and Wieland: or the Transformation both examine the lives of those who proclaim to be religious, yet their actions say otherwise. These revolutionary books showcase how God is being
Karl Marx (1818-1883) was one of the most influential thinkers and writers of modern times. Although it was only until after his death when his doctrine became world know and was titled Marxism. Marx is best known for his publication, The Communist Manifesto that he wrote with Engels; it became a very influential for future ideologies. A German political philosopher and revolutionary, Karl Marx was widely known for his radical concepts of society. This paper give an analysis of “The Manifesto” which is a series of writings to advocate Marx ‘s theory of struggles between classes. I will be writing on The Communist Manifesto, published in 1848, which lays down his theories on socialism and Communism.
When A Modest Proposal was published, or to give it’s full name "A Modest Proposal for preventing the children of poor people in Ireland, from being a burden on their parents or country, and for making them beneficial to the public." England dominated the whole of Ireland. English landlords owned much of Ireland’s property, Charging ridiculous amounts for rent to poor tenants who could barely afford to pay. England imposed extremely high taxes on Ireland and the English laws which restricted Irish trade made it impossible for the country to ever prosper. In general, the English had, at this time, a negative attitude towards Irish people,
The Corn Law grew into powerful political impact. It was used to attack the government by registering voters in by-elections or “general election” (p. 358). The Corn Laws were import tariffs designed to help protect grain prices in Great Britain and Ireland against competition from the less expensive foreign imports coming in; in the late18th century and early 19th century. But this still didn’t solve the problem of high prices of other foods. This law was supported by conservative land owners and workers but during the crisis of the “Irish Potato Famine”, Peel took advantage to repeal the Corn Laws.
The turmoil of the second decade of the twentieth century gave way to a greater sense of peace and stability in the third, with a peace treaty signed between Ireland and Britain in December of 1921 and Home Rule finally established for most of the Irish isle (Ferriter, n.d.). At the same time, this new society did not lead to instant prosperity, and indeed poverty remained a major and growing problem in Ireland during this decade (Ferriter, n.d.). Economic and social problems that persisted during this decade certainly could have been pushes to increased immigration.
As the bourgeois advanced financially, they also gained political influence. They progressed from a once oppressed class to an independent urban republic. As their political influence increased, certain changes became clear. The bourgeois had “torn away from the family its sentimental veil, and has reduced the family relation to a mere money relation (Marx).” This force eventually grew to the point that it was able to force other nations to conform to its values and methods or suffer extinction. As the bourgeois became richer, the proletarians began to suffer more. The balance of property began to shift even more rapidly than before leaving property “concentrated…in a few hands (Marx).” Eventually, the super-efficient production of the manufacturing economy began to take its toll on the bourgeois as well as the proletarians. More goods were produced due to the cheaper costs and ease of manufacture leading to an over-production of goods (Marxism). Over-production became a serious problem, resulting with widespread unemployment of the proletarians, and threats of a revolution on the horizons.
In the 17th century Scotland was divided into two distinct cultures, one of them being Highlands where people were living in clans ruling by the chiefs and speaking their own language - Gaelic. As for the act of Jacobite proscription it lead to the breakage of the clan system which lead the chiefs becoming Landlords. As new agriculture, economic and social ‘improvement’
The Irish had suffered long before in the hands of the English when Cromwell had been in control and had taken away land held by the catholic majority of the country to members of the protestant minority. This created a large tension among the population with the oppressed majority and the rather entitled minority who by Trevelyan’s snooty tone did indeed see themselves as the superior people in the country. (Trevelyan’s tone is probably the most dismissive when in discussion of the Irish, mayhaps showing his own true dislike.) (Trevelyan, p. 116-
One quarter of Irish land was unused but unavailable for farming by the Irish. The Woollen, Poplin, Linen and Furniture and Glass industries disappeared. Fishing was reduced due to a lack of capital for boats and storage; “Free trade” caused sixty percent unemployment. In 1829 The Duke of Wellington wrote “There never was a country in which poverty existed to the extent it exists in Ireland.”
Despite their large numbers, the proletariats find difficulty in unifying against the bourgeois. The division of the laborers, geographically, keeps them from becoming a union of their own, and so, they are in competition with each other instead of against the bourgeoisie. Marx believes that with the increasing number of proletariats, their strength will grow, and they will find ways to better their situation. “The real fruits of their battles lies, not in the immediate result, but in the ever expanding union of workers.”3 Improved means of communication will prove to be
Ireland is a country that is rich in culture, traditions, and faith. This country has struggled with over time with famine, religious tension, and even freedom. Many individuals immigrated to America in search of a better life. The person I chose to interview family came over to the United States when Ireland was struggling with famine. They came over on a boat through New York and changed there name to make it more American. For this paper I will further discuss the Irish culture and the person I interviewed.