The economy fluctuations in today’s world have become one of the most important factors in determining the direction of an economy growth. Non-stable economy can harm and slow the development and growing rate of a nation. There are many tools to stabilize the economy and reduce the frequency and the altitude of economic fluctuations. Among these tools are the fiscal policy and monetary policy. This report discusses the fiscal policy and why the governments use this too to stabilize the economy and encounter the economic fluctuations.
Fiscal policy is a macroeconomic tool used by the government through the control of taxation and government spending in an effort to affect the business cycle and to achieve …show more content…
At E¬¬1 the economy is under its full employment equilibrium Y¬¬F¬. The expansionary policy stimulates the AD1 and restores the equilibrium again at E2.
In the times of inflation, the economy operates above its full potential output and the government tries to raise taxes. When the government raises taxes, consumers are forced to put a larger portion of their income toward taxes, and thus disposable income falls. In terms of the economy as a whole, this is represented by Y = C(Y - T) + I + G + NX where an increase in T results in a decrease in Y, holding all other variables fixed. When the government reduces government spending, the recipients of government spending, the populace, have less disposable income. In terms of the economy as whole, this is represented by Y = C(Y - T) + I + G + NX where a decrease in G results in a decrease in Y. Contractionary fiscal policy makes the populace less wealthy and decreases output, or national income.
The contractionary fiscal policy tends to bring down the total income to its equilibrium. This is shown in the following figure that illustrates how the contractionary policy affects the aggregate demand curve.
Figure 2: The effect of the contractionary fiscal policy on aggregate demand
During the inflation times, the strong demand such as AD¬1 will temporarily lead to an output rate beyond the economy’s long-run potential YF. Contractionary fiscal policy could
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In addition, the government spending is one of the components of aggregate demand, consequently, lower GDP. In a demand-deficient recession, consumption and investment tend to decrease due to lower income and revenue, the (X-M) component tends to level off or worsen in short run, which makes government spending an essential device to stimulate the economy. Therefore a decrease in the government spending will cause an even deeper recession and a larger budget deficit.
Another form of macroeconomic policy is fiscal policy, which involves the use of the Commonwealth Government’s budget in order to achieve the Government economic objectives. By varying the amount of government spending and revenue, the government can effectively alter the level of economic activity, which in turn will influence economic growth, inflation, unemployment and the external indicators of the economy.
An economic downturn automatically paves way to a decline in taxation and an increase in government spending. This causes deficit. Nevertheless, if the government tries to reverse the situation by increasing tax rates, it would further result in a deflated economy leading to more unemployment and lower economic growth. A negative multiplier effect may give rise to an increase in deficit. Thus, deficit increases AD in a recession (Carbaugh, 2011).
c) In a recession, the Bank of Canada will conduct an open market purchase to lower the interest rate. The quantity of investment will increase, and other interest-sensitive expenditure items will also increase. With an increase in aggregate expenditure, the multiplier increases aggregate demand, bringing real GDP to equal potential GDP, and a recession will be eliminated.
Given the critical circumstances the United States economy faces today, the current fiscal policy, in addition to the changes that will be made in the future, is under intense scrutiny. During the Obama administration, which will soon come to an end in about six months, a variety of policies were created in attempts to create employment, raise our GDP, and boost the state of the economy, among other ideas. The fiscal policies created by Congress and the President demonstrate success in some areas, while failing in other areas, as many, including myself, would argue. As the 2016 election quickly approaches, it is important to remember previous fiscal mistakes and successes, and the current economy, in order to better grasp what will be necessary for a successful fiscal policy in the future.
The role of the fiscal policy is to monitor the economy and shows the effects of adjusting income tax. The fiscal policy also can redistribute income by progressive tax which is the percentage of tax which is charged due to a person income. This allows mare tax on people with higher incomes to increase tax revenues. The fiscal policy shows that a rise in income tax would
The role of the fiscal policy is to monitor the economy and shows the effects of adjusting income tax. The fiscal policy also can redistribute income by progressive tax which is the percentage of tax which is charged due to a person income. This allows mare tax on people with higher incomes to increase tax revenues. The fiscal policy shows that a rise in income tax would lower
Taxation, the amount of money we pay every year and of course the government is a big spender has a lot of assets at its disposal to influence the economy. The government is a very large entity and controls a lot of money. Fiscal policy is more effective when trying to stimulate the economic growth rather than trying to slow down an economy that is overheating. The goal of fiscal policy is too accomplished by decreasing aggregate expenditures and aggregate demand through a decrease in government spending. Fiscal policy pros are; it can build up the operation electronic stabilizers. Well-timed fiscal stabilization together with automatic stabilizers can have an impact on the level of aggregate expenditure and activity in the economy. Fiscal policy can be picky by attempting specific category of the economy. For example, the government can be focused to concentrate education, housing, health or any specific industry area. Fiscal policy controls a spending tap. Fiscal policy can have a forceful effect if used in bankruptcy, because the government can open a spending tap to increase the level of aggregate
Fiscal policy is whenever the government changes government spending or taxation as a means of influencing the market economy. This change takes place to stimulate or to restrain inflation. Fiscal policy is the manipulation of trends in the economy by the government. The content of this paper will discuss the effects of the changes in fiscal policy based on the evaluating fiscal policy alternatives simulation.
Fiscal Policy can be explained in many ways, for example. Fiscal policy is the use of the government budget to affect an economy. When the government decides on the taxes that it collects, the transfer payments it gives out, or the goods and services that it purchases, it is engaging in fiscal policy. The primary economic impact of any change in the government budget is felt by particular groups—a tax cut for families with children, for example, raises the disposable income of such families. Discussions of fiscal policy, however, usually focus on the effect of changes in the government budget on the overall economy—on such macroeconomic variables as GNP and unemployment and inflation.
A contractionary fiscal policy occurs when government spending is reduced either through from an increase in tax revenues or reduction in public spending and is used in periods in which it seeks slow the growth of aggregate demand. While an Expansionary Fiscal Policy implies an increase in public spending through increases in public spending or lower tax revenues. You can apply expansionary fiscal policies when seeking to increase aggregate demand.
The government has two tools of expansionary fiscal policy which are expansionary and contractionary. The difference in the two tools is that by taking the expansionary route the government is opting to stimulate the economy. Expansionary is most often the path taken during times of high unemployment or during a recession. The government cuts taxes, rebates as well as government spending. Lastly, another option the government may choose to take is called the contractionary fiscal policy this means that the government decides to decrease the amount of money such as increasing taxes and reduce the amount of money the government is spending.
The President of Bartavia wants to enact expansionary fiscal policy with the intention of manipulating inflation and unemployment. Although Bartavia is nearly employing all of its resources in production and extremely close to full employment level, the President is still concerned about the small percentage that is unemployed. Unemployment is the state of a person without a job or a reliable salary or income. Inflation and unemployment are characteristics that are closely monitored to indicate the economic performance of a country. As the economic advisor to the president, I would strongly advise against implementing this policy. Currently, the economy is not in a recession making the trade-offs associated with economic expansion counter intuitive. In addition, the Phillips Curve demonstrates the inverse relationship between inflation and unemployment, making the need for expansionary action unnecessary right now. Finally, Okun 's Law shows how this policy would effect Bartavia 's GDP via the sacrifice ratio. These three reasons show that the long-run consequences outweigh the short-run benefits of expansionary fiscal policy. Therefore, I implore the President to avoid implementing the expansionary policy.
1) Use the AS/AD framework to show the separate effects on GDP, inflation and public sector borrowing on any single national economy of: a) cut in public spending b) an increase in the rate of VAT (sales tax) c) a slowdown in the GDP growth of less developed economies. (Make sure that you include clear and appropriate diagrams for this question) According to Begg and Ward (2009) fiscal policy is the government’s decisions regarding taxation and spending to influence level of demand for goods and services. Cut in public spending and increase in the rate of VAT are instruments of contractionary fiscal policy in order to slow down economy, reduce inflation and deficit. a) Cut in public spending
Increased spending on investment adds to aggregate demand and helps to restore normal levels of production and employment.Fiscal policy, on the other hand, can provide an additional tool to combat recessions and is particularly useful when the tools of monetary policy lose their effectiveness. When the government cuts taxes, it increases households’ disposable income, which encourages them to increase spending on consumption. When the government buys goods and services, it adds directly to aggregate demand. Moreover, these fiscal actions can have multiplier effects: Higher aggregate demand leads to higher incomes, which in turn induces additional consumer spending and further increases in aggregate demand.Traditional Keynesian analysis indicates that increases in government purchases are a more potent tool than decreases in taxes. When the government gives a dollar in tax cuts to a household, part of that dollar may be saved rather than spent. The part of the dollar that is saved does not contribute to the aggregate demand for goods and services. By contrast, when the government spends a dollar buying a good or service, that dollar immediately and fully adds to aggregate demand.