Essay on Six Debates over Macroeconomic Policy

1363 Words May 12th, 2013 6 Pages
SIX DEBATES over MACROECONOMIC POLICY
SIX DEBATES over MACROECONOMIC POLICY

ISSUES | YES | NO | 1. Whether or not monetary and fiscal policymakers should try to stabilize the economy | Advocates of active monetary and fiscal policy view the economy as inherently unstable and believe that policy can manage aggregate demand, and thereby, production and employment, to offset the inherent instability. When aggregate demand is inadequate to ensure full employment, policymakers should boost government spending, cut taxes, and expand money supply. However, when aggregate demand is excessive, risking higher inflation, policymakers should cut government spending, raise taxes, and reduce the money supply. Such policy actions put
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Increased spending on investment adds to aggregate demand and helps to restore normal levels of production and employment.Fiscal policy, on the other hand, can provide an additional tool to combat recessions and is particularly useful when the tools of monetary policy lose their effectiveness. When the government cuts taxes, it increases households’ disposable income, which encourages them to increase spending on consumption. When the government buys goods and services, it adds directly to aggregate demand. Moreover, these fiscal actions can have multiplier effects: Higher aggregate demand leads to higher incomes, which in turn induces additional consumer spending and further increases in aggregate demand.Traditional Keynesian analysis indicates that increases in government purchases are a more potent tool than decreases in taxes. When the government gives a dollar in tax cuts to a household, part of that dollar may be saved rather than spent. The part of the dollar that is saved does not contribute to the aggregate demand for goods and services. By contrast, when the government spends a dollar buying a good or service, that dollar immediately and fully adds to aggregate demand. | Critics of spending hikes argue that tax cuts can expand both aggregate demand and aggregate supply and that hasty increases in government spending may lead to wasteful public projects.Tax cuts increase aggregate demand by increasing household’s disposable income, as