Genetic Analysis Of Alcoholism

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Genetics of Alcoholism The Oxford Pocket Dictionary says that, “alcoholism is an addiction to the consumption of alcohol or the mental illness and compulsive behavior resulting from alcohol dependency”. Individuals that deal with alcoholism often report that they feel they cannot function properly without alcohol. People turn to alcohol for various reasons, the most common reasons are relief of stress, coping of loss, relief of anxiety, and simply to feel good. Long term consumption of alcohol can lead to many health complications. Research has shown that genetics can influence half the risk for alcoholism.
Since 1989, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism has dedicated themselves to identify the specific genes that play
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Endophenotypes are hereditary traits that usually has an association with a condition, but is not a direct manifestation of the condition. Studies have concluded that a collection of endophenotypes of impulsivity, disinhibition, and related characteristics with a polymorphism (genetic variation) of the GABA A receptor, alpha 2 gene on chromosome 4. This gene variation is related to conduct disorder and the antisocial personality disorder (both conditions that show impulsivity and disinhibition) , as well as a susceptibility to the dependency of alcohol. A few other polymorphisms that are possibly related with disinhibition or cognitive mechanisms include a variation of the cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2 on chromosome 7, and the alcohol dehydrogenase 4 gene on chromosome 4 which can impact the dopamine reward systems through changes. Another polymorphism that is associated with disinhibition and other phenotypes is in ACN9 homologue on chromosome 7, which is believed to be apart of the process in gluconeogenesis and the ability of the body to use acetate which is a large range of genes possibly a factor in risk of schizophrenia and manic depressive disease, and these disorders may carry a high risk of alcohol and drug relency. Some individuals may experience a greater perception of satisfaction from alcohol compared to other individuals, resulting in frequent use of
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