Heart Failure Is A Syndrome That Involves Dysfunction Of The Cardiac Muscle

1246 WordsApr 3, 20165 Pages
Heart Failure Heart failure is a syndrome that involves dysfunction of the cardiac muscle that results in or increase the risk of developing manifestations of low cardiac output and/or pulmonary or systemic congestion (Grossman & Porth, 2014). The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute estimate that about 5.8 million people in the United States have heart failure. Even though heart failure can occur in any age group, it primarily affects older adults. Although morbidity and mortality rates from other cardiovascular diseases have decreased over the past several decades, the incidence of heart failure is increasing at an alarming rate. Approximately 400,000 to 700,000 people are diagnosed with heart failure each year (Grossman &…show more content…
In the valvular disease the regurgitation of blood back to the ventricles occurs when the valves fail to close tightly and this will result in ventricular overload and increased muscle stretching. This increases the heart muscles need for oxygen and energy resulting in the cardiac muscles to contract harder (Karch, 2013). The failure of the left ventricle to pump efficiently will lead to pulmonary vessel congestion and in severe cases, pulmonary edema whereas the inefficient pumping of right ventricle will lead to liver congestion and peripheral edema (edema of the legs and feet). The cardiovascular system works as a closed system and therefore, if one-sided failure left untreated, will eventually lead to failure of both sides (Karch, 2013). The American College of Cardiology (ACC)/ American Heart Association (AHA) has incorporated a classification system of heart failure that include four stages. This staging system (stage A to stage D) recognizes that there are established risk factors and structural abnormalities that are characteristics of the four stages of heart failure. This case study will discuss in detail about the heart failure, pathogenesis, medical management and nursing measures for a patient diagnosed with heart failure. Patient and Problem Mr. S.K. is a 63-year-old gentleman brought to the emergency department with severe shortness of breath, which has been
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