“Instead of labeling it Alzheimer’s, Dementia differs because it can happen any age.” In 2015, the Alzheimer’s Disease International estimated that about 46.8 million people worldwide live with dementia and these statistics will most likely double every twenty years. The most rapid growth of dementia in the elderly is currently taking place in China, India and the other surrounding Asian countries due to them being developing countries.
Patient living in the nursing homes with diagnosis of dementia experience Disruptive behavior. According to Burton et al. (2015) more than 44 million people have dementia. Dementia affects memory, thinking and social abilities. These symptoms severely interfere with daily functioning of the patient. Approximately 90% of dementia patients demonstrate psychological and behavioral symptoms such as anxiety, agitation, depression, hallucination, delusion, and aggression (Chen et al., 2014). Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are a varied group of non-cognitive symptoms affecting demented patients. These symptoms are delusion, hallucination, agitation, anxiety, euphoria, disinhibition, night-time behavioral disturbances
An estimated 47.5 million people suffer from dementia. Every 4 seconds one new case of dementia is diagnosed. Dementia is a term that describes certain symptoms such as impairment to memory, communication and thinking. It is a group of symptoms and not just one illness. Even though one‘s chance of getting dementia increase with age, it is not a part of aging. Dementia is usually diagnosed after a series of assessments that includes a physical evaluation, memory tests, imaging studies and blood work. It affects three aspects of one’s mental function, cognitive dysfunction (Problems with memory, language, thinking and problem solving), psychiatric behavior (changes in personality, emotional control, social behavior and delusions) and difficulties with daily living activities (driving, shopping, eating and dressing). “The median survival time in women is 4.6 years and in men 4.1 years” (Warren, 2016).
The fact that there are broad spectrums of services available within the Kaiser Permanente network makes it easier to coordinate patient care. For example the Northern California site has implemented programs that focus on five “imperatives of personal care”, which are: patients have to have a primary care doctor, they need to be able to see that physician, patients that call have a short telephone wait, patients should receive timely appointments and have a great care experience (Commonwealth fund June 2009). Care management definitely plays a crucial role in health care. When the patients needs are met and quality care is received the result is patient satisfaction and potentially cost saving for the organization. Patients not only have to deal with health issues, many experience challenges within their environment and certain limitations depending on socioeconomic status. Therefore , coordination of patient care is key to the success of any health care delivery system.
Dementia can be defined as a decline in mental ability severe enough to interfere with daily life (alz.org). More than often, individuals affected by dementia are over the age of 65. In the United States, there are more than three million cases of dementia each year. According to World Health Organization, the number of people living with dementia is currently estimated at 47.5 million worldwide and is expected to increase to 75.6 million by 2030 (World Health Organization 2015). Dementia is caused by physical modifications in the brain and is known for loss of memory and mental abilities. It’s a progressive disease which means it gets worse over time. If diagnosed early on, the quality of life for people with dementia as well as their family members can be significantly improved. There are many different types of dementias although some are far more reciprocal than others. One of the most common types of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease. Other few types of dementias are “Vascular dementia, Mixed dementia, Parkinson 's disease and Frontotemporal dementia (Krishnan, D. S)”. All of the various forms of dementia tend to have similar symptoms which consequently makes it hard to determine the type of dementia a patient may be suffering from.
Globally, the World Health Organisation reports there are approximately 47.5 million people who have been diagnosed with a form of dementia and there are 7.7 million new cases each year. The number of people effected internationally is estimated to triple by 2050 to
According to the Alzheimer’s Disease International (ADI), dementia is one of the most prevalent disorders found among
“Contratheraputic is when an individual experience unintentional or unanticipated adverse effects while the individual is on a drug regimen that is not closely monitored by a doctor” (Understanding and Managing Polypharmacy in Elderly, 2004). Screening elderly for polypharmacy is crucial because adverse side effects of some medications can imitate other problems such as confusion, incontinence, urinary retention, and falls which may cause a physician to prescribe another medication to help treat those symptoms. The Beers criteria is a list of drugs that may be inappropriate for elderly patients as the risks outweigh the benefits, an example is the use of urinary anticholinergic which could prevent one episode of incontinence every 48 hours but can cause constipation, dry mouth, dry eyes, impaired cognition and increased risk of
In the United States there are approximately 5.4 million people living with Alzheimer’s. Every sixty-nine seconds a person is diagnosed. This is an ongoing issue, and unless something is done, sixteen million people will be affected by 2050 (Latest).
liver and kidneys. Normal adult dose of some medications can be toxic to an older patient.
Inappropriate prescribing commonly occurs in adults aged 65 or older, who have a higher prevalence of chronic disease, disability, and dependency (Page II, Linnebur, Bryant, & Ruscin, 2010). Exposure to inappropriate medications is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and health care utilization (Page II, Linnebur, Bryant, & Ruscin, 2010). Below is a list of measures that concentrate on the prescribing of correct medications in the hospital
Nearly half of seniors do not take their medications when or how they were prescribed. There are mistakes on dosages, methods of delivery, time of delivery, what they should be taken with, and even if they should still be taken. Compounding the issue, most seniors over the age of 65 are taking between 8 and 13 different medications. Put these numbers together and it is no wonder that problems with medication management are one of the leading reasons seniors end up in the emergency room, and is the number one reason seniors end up back in the hospital after being recently discharged. According to a study published in "Pharmacotherapy", nearly 70 percent of hospitalized seniors suffered from at least one
Senior citizens are the people who are most likely to take multiple medications due to the occurring chronic conditions as the aging process continues. Given the several medicines they take, they are ironically the age group that is very much sensitive to medication side effects, both therapeutic and negative.
As the elderly population increases so will the occurrences of ADEs. For this reason, it is important to protect the elderly patient from these negative consequences of polypharmacy. This is accomplished by understanding how the aging body reacts to medications, understanding which drugs are the most problematic for the elderly patient, and how to spot a drug-related problem and
According to IC & RC, Case Management is defined as, “activities intended to bring services, agencies, resources, or people together within a planned framework of action toward the achievement of established goals. It may involve liaison activities and collateral contacts” (Herdman, John W., 6th Ed.). Case management is a concerted effort of various professionals in the human social services network that assess’, plans, implements, coordinates, monitors and evaluates options required to meet the client’s health and human service needs. It is characterized by advocacy, communication, resource management and promotes quality cost-effective intervention outcomes. The Case Management Process centers on the client and the client’s support system. It is holistic in its approach to the management of the client’s individual and specific situation and that of the client’s support system. It is adaptive both to the case manager’s practice setting and to the healthcare setting in which the client receives services. Case management is not a profession unto itself however; it is a cross-disciplinary and interdependent specialty practice within the health and human services profession. Everyone directly or indirectly involved in healthcare benefits when healthcare professionals and