Illegal Drug Users As Criminals

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Historically, drugs have been used for medicine purposes, for ceremonies and rituals (Ouzir & Errami, 2016, p. 59). Nowadays, the majority of legal and illegal drug consumption remains occasional and recreational, with about 15-35% of individuals developing an addiction (Lenoir & Noble, 2016, p. 1096). The term “addiction” typically refers to psychoactive substance abuse such as tobacco, alcohol, cocaine or opioids and is characterized by impaired control, functional impairment, risky use, tolerance and withdrawal (Chamberlain et al., 2016, p. 841). Several repetitive behaviours share these core aspects of addictions, such as gambling disorder, Internet addiction (Chamberlain et al., 2016, p. 841), exercise dependency (Berczik et al., …show more content…

64). Perhaps the most poignant example of addictions triggered by biology is iatrogenic drug dependence: while opioids like morphine are prescribed for short-term pain management, recent studies have shown that up to 56% of patients develop a long-term addiction (Beauchamp, Winstanley, Ryan & Lyons, 2014, p. 2024). In such cases, the catalyst for the addiction is pain, not emotional stress, and individuals with genetic predispositions may develop a long-term substance dependency. An example of behavioural addiction triggered by biological factors is exercise, with about 2.5% of the exercising population showing symptoms of addiction (tolerance, withdrawal, lack of control, continuance etc.) and up to 52% for athletes (Berczik et al., 2012, p. 412). Although initiated by a desire for physical fitness, some individuals with genetic predisposition will progress to a full addiction to exercise. Somewhat related to biology, an individual’s personality also refers to patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. Although some personality characteristics are innate, other traits are acquired and develop over time, for example through socialization (Wakefield, 2013, p. 171). The role of personality with the use of different substances such as alcohol, tobacco and marijuana has

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