Howard, A. EU-7101V2 1
Identify Areas of Research in Your Specialization
IDENTIFY AREAS OF RESEARCH 2
Low Performing Students In every school and in every classroom, it becomes apparent that the grouping of students becomes necessary. The necessity arises as the pressure mounts to improve student achievement. The pressure increases as the school and district release standard testing results to the public. Once this data becomes public knowledge the schools in the district are ranked by their levels of achievement. One of the ratings is a school with a high number of scores below grade level being labelled as a low performing school. The school then labels the students who score below grade level as low performing. According to Papay, Mumane & Willett “…students receive abundant information about their educational performance, but how this information affects future educational performance-investment decisions is not well understood” (Papay, Mumane & Willett, 2016). My interest in this subject is related to the determination that once students are labelled as low performing will it affect their desire to improve their academic achievement level or hinder their progress.
Experience with the Topic My experience with low performing students is vast. The majority, of my professional experience has been as a teacher or administrator working with low performing students. I feel that I
The (No Child Left Behind Act of 2001), closing achievement gaps among various student groups became a primary focus for the federal education accountability. schools and districts were required to separate student test scores and performance data by student characteristics in order to better understand and make comparisons between the ethnic groups. This created better awareness of racial disparities, and an ever bigger concern about other
Third, while schools continue to be accountable for student progress, that progress is no longer measured merely by state core testing results. The new law allows the states to consider a broader view for evaluating schools. There are four academic factors that must be considered, including: (1) Reading and math test scores; (2) English-language proficiency test scores; (3) High school graduation rates; and (4) A state-chosen academic measure for grade schools and middle schools (Understood Team, n.d.). These
With standard grading processes on the school level, motivation for sufficient learning is advancement and graduation from that educational branch. Except in cases of completely deteriorated motivation from the student, typically culminating in said student dropping out on their own accord, this incentive to complete the curriculum typically maintains student motivation. The shortsightedness of such testing is the assumption of a unified degree of student motivation, especially at the high school level (Forte, 2010). Standardized tests administered to student at this age group are frequently low pressure and low stake. Because the tests pose far less consequence to the student, and motivation for students can occur on such a wide spectrum, test results become far less uniform than expected (Ryan, Ryan, Arbuthnot, & Samuels, 2007). When applied to a common, realistic scenario, the model begins to break down. For example, an unmotivated student would characteristically perform poorly on a test. When the scores are returned, however, the school is still expected to facilitate this student’s learning in order to resolve the previous score, following the trend of school culpability. Due to differing degrees of motivation, the test results therefore possess a significant potential for ambiguous validity, which subsequently requires filtering of test results to stabilize the statistics (Wise, Wise, & Bhola, 2006). To filter
With this information, a region of schools can compare their results and figure out how well a region is doing in comparison to other regions. However, this is not completely valid due to the difference in assessment in each region. Therefore, they cannot be accurately compared to other regions because of this difference. (Costa and Kallick, 1995)
A comparison of norm-referencing and criterion-referencing methods for determining student grades in higher education. (n.d.). Retrieved February 3, 2015, from http://www.cshe.unimelb.edu.au/assessinglearning/06/normvcrit6.html
These tests will provide teachers and administrators a diagnosis of how the school is performing and in which areas the school needs to improve on. This will also inform policymakers which schools are doing well and why. Then that technique can be applied to schools in which the scores were not meeting standards. President Bush and the U.S. Congress have challenged educators to set high standards and hold students, schools and districts accountable for results. (Dept. of Ed, 2004)
Since the beginning of global standardized testing, American students have been less than impressive. Numerous other countries consistently score higher than students in the United States. While comparing the test scores from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), two major cross-national studies of students’ scholastic performance, it is true that the United States is nowhere near the top, and is instead merely mediocre. An exhaustive list of reasons could be compiled in attempting to explain this phenomenon, but at its core the problem is not that complicated. The prominent issues that cause American students to lag behind are a result of the nation’s multiple separate education systems, parenting, the curriculum or specifically how it is taught.
Because instructors are teaching directly for the test, the data collected may not be an accurate representation of the student’s true abilities. As standardized test grow in popularity among the school system, the pressure to achieve high scores rapidly builds. The importance of high scores goes beyond individual students’ performances, and teacher evaluations. Serious repercussions could result from poor scores, or performances. For example, “schools that continue to fail to improve may be closed, and districts that continue to fail may be subject to state takeover” (Posner). With the weight of the success of the school on their shoulders,
On the contrary, some studies have shown that schools who have a large pool of low-scoring students take the issue very seriously. In his research, Deming concluded that, school officials who find themselves in this position respond by hiring additional teachers to work with students and also by investing more time into disadvantaged students. In effect, these students were more likely to pass future exams, and enroll in college (Deming
In my previous positions, I was often assigned the most at-risk students. The justification from my superiors, “you can handle it” and that working with diverse students “would make me better.” I believe that it has made me a better service provider. I want to be part of a challenging, and growth-minded work community that values personal and professional development. I believe. I am confident that my professional experience and education have prepared me to fulfill the expectations of the Assistant Tutor Coordinator/Learning Specialist position.
The recipient receiving the bad grade on the test can be academically smart but still score low. Therefore, causing them to be placed in a lower educated categories. Standardized testing discourages students that are given below average scores by ranking them into a labeled group. One article explains that, “the potential of the test are “overshadowed” by negative effects of the outcome.”(STANDARDIZED TESTING IN FLUX). This article incorporates multiple point perspective by professional professors mainly accepting that standardized testing could be used to expand growth, however, any beneficial plans are hidden. A system of ranking can mature students to learn more, but it also causes discomfort between those that are towards the
The educational system in the United States has gone through many changes over the last century. These changes are a part of a constant movement toward educational excellence for every child in this nation. One of the most recent acts placed on public school systems by the government is to create more accountability for schools in order to ensure that all children are receiving the proper education. Part of this mandate is that public schools will require students to take tests in order to gather information about their academic achievement. Although educators and administrators claim that the mandatory ability testing programs being initiated in America’s public schools will hold students and teachers accountable for academic
If someone was to ask you “how do you define student achievement?” what would your answer be? Would you say student achievement is measured by state achievement tests? Or would you say that student achievement is too complex a subject to be objectively measured? There are many important skills students must be taught, and we need a way to effectively measure if they are in fact learning those skills. However, standardized tests cannot effectively show the learning of all students, especially those that are not good test takers. And of those skills that are tested, there are an endless number of arguably more important skills that aren’t being valued because they cannot be calculated. Furthermore,
There are many different types of standardized tests used in schools around the country, but “high-stakes” achievement tests in US elementary and secondary schools have produced