The Indus River Valley civilization was an ancient civilization located on a subcontinent called India. The Indus River Valley civilization was naturally isolated by the Himalayas and the east and west Ghat mountains. The ancient civilization was located near a river, like most of the ancient civilizations of their time. Because India was surrounded by mountains on all sides, the subcontinent was very prone to attacks. A major problem for the Indus River Valley civilization was the constant monsoons it had. India had two different types of monsoons, the winter monsoon and the summer monsoon. The Indus River Valley civilization depended on the summer monsoon, because that is when they got most of their rain. When the winter monsoon hit the …show more content…
It is also believed they participated in the maritime trade network. The ancient civilization would trade many different types of things, for example they traded silver, gold, seashells, flint, and gemstones. Cotton was one of the most important items the ancient civilization traded. The Indus River Valley civilization had one of the largest trade routes of their time, which expanded from Mesopotamia to China.
The Indus River Valley civilization society was based around a social hierarchy, which was divided into groups based upon occupations. The highest group of the social hierarchy was the Brahmins, or also known as priests. The second highest group of the hierarchy was the Kshatriyas, or warriors. The third group were called the Vaisyas, which consisted of the herders, farmers, artisans, and merchants. The fourth group consisted of people who had little or no Aryan heritage called the Sudras, they consisted of farm workers, servants, and other laborers. The lowest group of the social hierarchy was the dalits, they did work no one else wanted to do. Their social class determined who they could marry, what kind of education they could get, where they could live, and what jobs they could get.
The Indus River Valley religion was polytheistic, which meant they believed in many god. The ancient civilization worshipped god and goddesses who embodied natural forces. The main god the civilization worshiped was Indra, the god of war. Indra´s was weapon
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The early river valley civilizations did many things in their time that affected the future today. The early river valley civilizations were the first to use a written language, develop laws and beliefs, and also had many innovations that affect today's world. All of the civilizations contributed to different categories including writing, laws, and innovation to affect the future with setting their own rules and invention.
The Indus River Valley civilization is the largest among the other three civilizations, Mesopotamia, Egypt, and China, with a population of over five million people, covering land
Ancient Mesopotamia and the Indus River Valley civilization were two incredibly productive and successful empires. While Mesopotamian politics were slightly less focused on religion and more on other aspects, the two societies shared many social characteristics. They both had defined social hierarchies, as well as similar views on gender roles. These traits are helpful in explaining the similarities and differences between the two cultures.
The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization located in what is now Pakistan and northwest India, on the rich flood plain of the Indus River. The first evidences of religion can be traced back to 5500 B.C.E. Similarly, archeological records show that farming settlements formed around 4000 B.C.E. By 2500 B.C.E. dozens of towns and cities had been established and the Indus Valley Civilization was at its peak (Violatti). The Indus River Valley Civilization had some sort of writing system that is still unknown to modern scholars. The evidence suggests they had a highly developed city life; there was irrigation for farming and an underground
In the following treatise, the research that will be presented will provide criteria involving similarities and differences in three attributes of life in the four primary river valley civilizations. The river valley civilizations are composed of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus Valley, and China. While each of these civilizations is unique in their habits and traditions, they share many similar qualities. For this work to be as comprehensive as possible, the primary focus will be on comparing and analyzing the cultures and ambiance, or environments, political organization and religious beliefs, and social structures of each society. The following categories are going to be analyzed by utilizing the frameworks of the four river valley civilizations. Without further ado, a juxtaposition of the ancient river valley civilizations.
Ancient river valley civilizations economy were heavily relied on trade.In ancient China, people heavily relied on the silk road to trade.The silk road allowed China to communicate with other civilizations like India. The silk road were used to trade silk,
Throughout the history of Earth, there have been many fascinating developments, the most prominent being the first civilizations, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. They had many similarities, such as characteristics of early civilizations and social structures, but they also had their differences. The most embossed differences included the divergent geography, prior belief, trade, relations with other civilizations, and politics.
HOOK/INTRODUCTION SENTENCE. Big Era 3 lasted from 10,000 to 1,000 BCE and can be defined by the beginnings of farming and complex societies. Big Era 4 lasted from 1200 BCE to 500 CE and in this period empires rose and networks of exchange and human interaction expanded.
Vedic society was divided into four different classes, Brahmans, nobles, commoners and the serfs. These classes are part of the cosmic hierarchy and were based on purity. This gave way to the caste systems. Castes are arranged in the following order of the polarity of purity; Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas and the shudras. With a fifth group called the untouchables at the very bottom. They are the untouchables because they are the most impure. The caste of an individual cannot be removed. Each caste has strict rules on caste endogamy.
The Indus valley civilization was an ancient civilization that lasted/height was 700 years and their location was Pakistan, Afghanistan and India meaning north west. Jewelry was wored by the women and men in the Indus valley civilization. I am making a bangle form soft clay for making the round shape. The stone type of material use in the Indus valley civilization were silver, gold, copper, ivory, pottery and beads these were the most common materials to make jewelry.
Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley civilizations have long been compared throughout history and were both some of the earliest civilizations in the world. Mesopotamia, also known as, 'the land between the rivers,' was named for the triangular area between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers. This area has been extended and now covers modern day Iraq, adding ancient Assyria and Babylonia to that land. The Indus civilization is often referred to as the Harappan civilization from the first city discovered called Harappa. The Indus civilization existed in the vast river plains of what are now Pakistan and northwestern India between the Indus and Ganges rivers from about 2800 BC to 1800 BC. Though these two territories had many things in common
The Indus Valley Society has left many mysteries for our historian to discover, those treasures are enormous. There is a few key characteristic I would like to mention such as, they have developed the sewage system, which it was a very big deal, and they have created what is like the modern road system. These are some of the most famous developments during the era. The Vedic people have master the skill making perfect brick. There many other groups name continent the name of Veda, these are the people who lived after the die down of the Indus Valley Society, but there only one major group, the Rig Veda. This group focuses the lot more on how to worship their goddess, there are many parts in the book of “The Hindus,” explain the way to worship their gods, and what is the need to be sacrifice during their worship. Brahmanism is actually an early religion in Indian sub-continent, this religion was based on Vedic writing, which is considering a young form of Hinduism. According to “ The Hindus” written by Doniger, “ Hinduism, is like all cultures, is a bricoleur, a rag- and bones man, building new things out of the scraps of other things.” This is also how the early Indian civilization was set up. I firmly believe there is sort of connection between these two societies. I actually believe that the language of these Vedic people is using is past down from the Indus Valley period. In fact, according to the text, “ The Vedic people has master
The Indus Valley Civilization (3300–1300 BCE) was the one among the greatest early civilzation of the Old World alongside the ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia (Wright 2009, Wright 2010), which developed in South Asia along perennially flowing Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra ( also called as Saraswati) river in northwest India and eastern Pakistan (Wright 2010, Giosan 2012, Maemoku 2013). Though least studies so far, emerging archeological studies suggest that the Indus Valley (oftenly called Harappa) might have been most wide spread, extending across today’s northwest Pakistan deep into western India and carried probably more than five million people at its peak (Kahn 2005, McIntosh 2008). Reduced water supply has possibly caused the civilization’s demise and eastward movement of its population (Madella 2006, MacDonald 2011, Brooke 2014) towards the Gangetic plain after its decline (Possehl 1999; McIntosh 2002:11) giving rise to many succeeding Vedic tradition linked cultures reinforced by reports of many religious artefacts of Hindu practices from Indus Valley locations (Mishra 2001). The northwestern region of pre-partition India was the centre for Indus Valley civilization and for the shift from hunting-gathering to the societies with settled agriculture and domesticated animals (Allchin and Allchin 1997) well supported by archeological discoveries of first agricultural occupation in the Indus basin near Mehrgarh (now in Pakistan) and surrounding areas
The Indus valley civilizations was an intriguing and sophisticated ancient culture and also a major contributor in the development of what later came to be known as “Hinduism” . The civilization was founded “accidentally” in the 19th century when the British engineers were searching for ballast for a railway line in north-western India (which is now modern day Pakistan) and found the remains of what seemed to be an ancient city which was only known only to locals until then. In the early 20th century, when other similar sites were uncovered, archaeologists realized the significance of the discovery, which turned out to be one of the most prospering civilizations of the ancient world. It is called The Indus Valley Civilization because most of its settlements are situated along the banks of the Indus River .The largest and most important of this civilization were its two prospering cities known as Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. These names are of post–Indus origin as they were given with reference to the towns built much later on the ruins of these ancient cities. During their prosperous period,, Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa had a population of around 40-50 thousand, which was a lot by ancient standards. Both of these cities were highly organized and strategically planned, and displayed remarkably similar features during their excavation. Given the structure of the cities, archaeologists suggest that there may have been a central authority for code enforcement and the Harappan
Mesopotamia and Harappan societies have long been compared throughout the history of archaeology. Mesopotamia, also known as, 'the land between the rivers,' was named for the triangular area between the Tigris and the Euphrates river, (Nov. 7 lecture). In recent use, it covers a broader area referring to most of what is now Iraq. This adds ancient Assyria and Babylonia to the scope of Mesopotamia (Schultz and Lavenda 1995:310). Parts of Mesopotamia were not inhabited at all until approximately 8000 BC when plants and animals were domesticated, bringing about an agricultural revolution. This allowed nomads and cave dwellers to become farmers and herders.(Whitehouse 1977:129).)