Several theories about international trade explain why countries have the opportunity to trade, theory of comparative advantage and absolute advantage. Adam Smith came up with the theory of absolute advantage where the country that produces more of one good that another country has simply an absolute advantage over it. This theory normally constructed with two commodities and two countries. In Schuhmachers article “Adam Smith’s theory of absolute advantage and the use of doxography in the history of economics” he says, “each nation can produce one good with less expenditure of human labor than the other and thus more cheaply.” (Schuhmachers, 2012) In this case, both countries will specialize in only producing the commodity, which they have …show more content…
This means it does not matter if country A can produce more overall than country B, as long as B can produce it more efficiently than country A. Country B will choose to produce that product and then trade it with country A. When a country focuses on a good that it is efficient in producing for a lower price then they increase national income and company’s increase profits. An example of comparative advantage: Country A can produce 28 bikes and 4 radios, Country B can produce 32 bikes and 12 radios. Country B has an absolute advantage in both products but it has a comparative advantage specifically in radios because it can efficiently produce 3 times more for less than Country A (Economics Online, 2017.)
Both theories have the positive effect of making economies that trade grow. Trade makes a price range below the local price possible. Furthermore, the exporting country can produce more and the importing country can use its resources on other products in which it is better at producing. However, because trade prices of foreign goods are lower local goods will experience lower demand. This is one of the reasons for a trade restriction-- the government of a country will help maintain local businesses.
Factor Proportion theory was originally created by two Swedish economists. "According to this theory, one condition for trade is that countries differ with respect to the availability of the factors of production. They
According to Colander, "The reason two countries trade is that trade can make both countries better off" (2004, p. 416). In economics, the theory of comparative advantage clarifies why it can be advantageous for two countries to trade, even though one of them may be able to produce every kind of item more cheaply than the other. What matters is not the absolute cost of production, but instead, the ratio between how easily the two countries can produce different kinds of goods. The basic idea of the principle of comparative advantage is that as long as the relative opportunity costs of producing goods differ among countries, then there are potential gains from trade.
If each country specializes in areas where its advantages are greatest or disadvantages are least, the gains from trade will make each country better off than it would be if it remained self-sufficient. 
Due to the differences between the countries in its profitable fundamentals; the International Trade occurs. The contracts between the countries consider as the primary driver of the global exchange. These contracts concluded on the basis of the countries beneficial elements and advantages. Each international trade between the countries depends on numerous focal points of this exchange process. The economics and producers effectiveness measured by absolute advantage for these economics/producers. For example; if the producer needs lesser amount of contributions/inputs to provide specific product, then this producer has an absolute advantage in producing
Trading is very important economic factor. Trade between different countries depends upon different factors. There are some factors due to which bilateral trade between two states is enhanced. On contrary, there are some factors which restrict or reduce the trade between two countries (Meyer, 2011). Factors which enhance trade include different cultural, political, geographic and economic aspects which are common between the 2 countries involved in bilateral trade with each other. While trade is reduced or restricted, if two countries are completely different culturally, politically, geographically and economically (Siegel, 2011). For example, trade between two countries, having common boarder, currency, per capita income et cetera, will be lot more high than those countries which do not share these factors common with each
Absolute advantage is the ability to produce more than one product efficiently and at the lowest cost. Comparative advantage is the ability to specialize in producing one product at the lowest cost. Comparative advantage affects trade the most because with specializing in producing one product the companies must trade to receive other products. Comparative advantage also considers the opportunity of cost to produce one product verse the other.
Comparative advantage in economics is when a country can produce a good at a lower opportunity cost relative to other producers. It is because of this theory that output will increase because a producers within a country specializes Countries will gain the ability to maximize their efficiency and their labor force which facilitates mass-production of products, resulting in higher profits and international trade. This is because the economies of scale reduces overall cost, by producing more units. If the two countries moved towards protectionism and attempted to become self-sufficient then the production of goods would then
However, it was apparent to economists that nations with similar resource endowments exchanged similar products with each other. Economists felt that trade explained solely by comparative advantage was an incomplete analysis of international trade. Furthermore, since the classical trade theory was unable to explain intraindustry trade, economists decided to expand on the classical trade theory by creating a new theory of trade (Carbaugh, 2011). The new theory states that economies of scale provide incentive for a country to specialize in a particular product (Carbaugh, 2011). Furthermore, based on economies of scale, nations with similar factor endowments will trade with each other as sometimes it is beneficial (Carbaugh, 2011). Arguments stemming from this new trade theory puts the economic case for free trade in doubt.
Which is cost difference determines the patterns of international trade. Absolute advantage is trade benefits when each country is at least cost producer of one of the goods being traded. In the 1800s, David Ricardo developed the theory of comparative advantage to measure gains from trades. This theory is based on comparative advantage and it states each nation should specialize in production of those goods for which its relatively more efficient with a lower opportunity cost.
Economic analysts say trading among other countries with no stipulations improve global efficiency in resource allocation (Tupy, 2005). Free Trade delivers goods and services to those who value them most and allows partners to gain from specializing in the producing those goods and services they do best; according to Tupy’s findings, Economists call that the law of comparative advantage. Tupy also states when producers create goods they are comparatively skilled at i.e. Germans producing beer and the French producing wine, those goods increase in abundance and quality. Trade allows consumers to benefit from more efficient production methods, for example, without large markets for goods and services, large production runs would not be economical. Large production runs, in turn, are instrumental to reducing product costs while lower production
The country can maximize their wealth by putting the resources in the most competitive industries. Government created comparative advantage rather than free trade because now easier moves the production processes and the machines into countries that can produce more goods (Yeager & Tuereck, 1984). However, many countries now move to new trade theory suggests the ability firms to limit the number of competitors associated with economic scale (reduction of costs with a large scale of output) (Krugman, 1992). The comparative advantage occurs when two-way trade in identical products, it will useful where economic scale is important, but it will create problem with this model. As a result, government must intervene in international trade for protection to domestic firms (Krugman, 1990)
The theory of comparative advantage explains the benefit of free trade. According to this theory by David Ricardo in the early 19th century, “Both countries will be better off if each specializes in the industry where it has a comparative advantage, and if the two trade with one another.” (Citation) International trade opens up markets to foreign supplier, and domestic companies need to improve their efficiency, boost productivity, and lower cost to increase competitiveness instead of enjoying monopolies or oligopolies that enabled them to keep prices well above marginal costs. On the other hand, international trade also offers domestic companies bigger demands and broader markets; therefore more jobs relevant to export have been created. Furthermore, jobs in the US supported by goods exports pay 13-18 percent more than the US national average (ustr.gov).
A country is said to be more productive than another country, if it can produce more output (goods) for a given quantity of input, such as labour or energy inputs. An example is that there are only two countries, Australia and Japan. They both produce computers and wine, and only one factor of production, labour. Japan produces 6 computers for every 1 bottle of wine, where as Australia produces only 4 computers for every 3 bottles of wine. This suggests that Australia should export some of its wine to Japan, and Japan should export some of its computers to Australia. Australia has an absolute advantage over Japan, when producing wine, and Japan has an absolute advantage over Australia, when producing computers (Gandolfo, 1998).
The international trade of goods across the world accounts for approximately 60% of the world Gross Domestic Product (The World Bank, 2014). A great proportion of goods transactions occur every second. The primary question is whether international trade benefits a country as an entirety, and, if so, why would a country implement protective trade policies to restrict particular exports? To address this question, this essay aims to explore the impact of trade on various economic stakeholders, including consumers, producers, labour and government and, furthermore, will compare models and theories with reality to ascertain the true winner/ loser in the international trade market.
The concept of absolute advantage is one of the most fundamental areas of concern in the study of economics. In its basic meaning, absolute advantage refers to the ability of one individual or party to produce more of a particular good or service than other competitors given the same amount of resources. In this regard, absolute advantage becomes a very important aspect in the concept of international trade as it clearly defines the different areas where countries should specialize in order to maximize their productivity and enhance international trade. The principle of absolute advantage was first elucidated by Adam Smith in his study of international trade using labor and capital as the only factor inputs(Free, 2010).
The principle of comparative advantage provides a simplified theory explaining why free trade is possible, even when one country has an economic disadvantage. Both the Ricardian and Heckscher-Ohlin theories rely on fixed economic assumptions of constant return and perfect competition. However, intuitively the basic principle of business is to increase returns through innovation, improving processes and technology or increasing economies of scale. Organizations understand they control pricing and are price setters, rather than price takers as suggested by perfect competition (Krugman & Obstfeld, 2003). The idea of increasing returns and imperfect competition challenge the foundations of comparative advantage.