Introduction. The Production Of Oil From Most Commercially

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Introduction

The production of oil from most commercially viable reservoirs is generally described by three stages termed natural recovery, supplementary recovery and enhanced recovery processes. The recovery processes are used in consecutive order and the shift between methods is usually governed by whether the subsequent production method is economic or not. The production of oil has a very wide range of efficiency, described as the recovery factor (RF). No matter if any single recovery process is efficient or not, the three terms are used by convention from the initial planning stage. For instance, it is also worth noting the use of enhanced methods without the use of supplementary methods may well still improve the overall recovery
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However, it is analytically impossible to exactly simulate any given natural reservoir due to the number of parameters that occur in the model, along with the associated uncertainty of various parameters.

Displacement methods are not always efficient, when high volumes of injected fluid may only displace a relatively small fraction of hydrocarbons. In particular, the inefficient displacement of the waterflooding mechanism is often due to the unfavourable mobility ratio or reservoir heterogeneity. Research has established that the mobility of brine used in waterflooding is highly reduced by adding small amounts of hydrolysed polyacrylamide, a water-soluble polymer. The reduction in the brine mobility results in greater oil recovery when compared to the conventional water flooding technique [3][4][5].

Hence production plans increasingly include enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes to mobilize oil in the reservoir rock.
1. Primary Oil Recovery
Primary oil recovery, also known as the natural reservoir drive mechanism, consists of different types of reservoir drive mechanisms which displace the oil towards the producing well or well bore. Generally there are six types of reservoir drive mechanism:
Rock and liquid expansion drive
Depletion drive
Gas cap
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