Karenia Brevis

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Have you ever heard about the redness of water in coastal region of West Florida and Gulf of Mexico? Even though this redness in water makes beautiful scene for many of us, it is actually harmful to many of the aquatic species and humans on earth. One of the organisms which is responsible for the discoloration of water is Karenia Brevis. This is commonly known as Red tide in many parts of the world. Karenia brevis (formally known as Gymnodinium breve and Ptychodiscus brevis) is marine dinoflagellate Protista, commonly known for its toxin, is responsible for the Florida and Texas Red tide ( Global Biodiversity). Scientists also refers to K. brevis as Harmful algae blooms as it produces series of bretoxins (neurotoxins) which contributes to …show more content…

(Marine species). There are many ways this organism supports its life such as photosynthesis, taking nutrients and gases from water. Many experiments identified multiple gases, and nutrients source under water that supports and contributes to these harmful blooms. (Primary lit). One of the research that carried out in 2007 further add additional sources of nitrogen, and phosphorous that supports these blooms at every stage of their lives. The research was carried out by Karenia field program on a research cruises from 2007-2010 to identified and quantify different sources of Nitrogen, and phosphorous available to K. brevis in its local habitat.( primary lit). Karenia brevis is classified as Eukarya domain for its eukaryotic cell and cell membranes, and further classified as Protozoa kingdom for its single celled feature.( bio web). The cell of Karenia brevis are nearly square with rounded edges with considerably flattened dorso ventrally. Cells range in size from 20-40 µm in width to 10-15 µm in depth, and is slightly wider than its length (marine). This organism subcategorized as Dinophyta phylum as it is classified as primary marine producer and possess cellulose plates. Further, it classified as …show more content…

brevis’s growth. A group of scientists conducted 3 year on West Florida Shelf in October, when the amount of K. brevis is high. First, they sampled the concentration of K. brevis’s cells from different environmental regions such as offshores, estuaries, and coastal. Then, they sampled the water from different regions, and checked nutrients availability in each region. Scientists also take previous studies data into consideration to confirmed the amount of nutrients, especially nitrogen, and phosphorous. After sampling K. brevis and water, scientists focused on the needs of this organism. They grouped K. brevis blooms into three categories: small, medium, and large; and worked in laboratory to confirm the amount of nitrogen, and phosphorous needed by each separated blooms. After researching for three year, a team of scientists concluded that the amount of nutrient sources vary depending on toxicity, biomass, and bloom’s locations. In estuaries, Most of Nitrogen and phosphorous source comes from Nitrogen Fixation, decay of Fishes related to Red tide, and photochemical nutrient production. In coastal regions, majority of the large blooms is supported by mix trophic consumption of Picoplankton, and nutrient releasing from detritivores in water. As

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