“Stop living in the past, when you are pregnant”.
“Pregnancy is one of the most powerful creations and miracle. It is one of the most beautiful and significantly life altering events that a woman can ever experience” (Elisabeth Hasselbeck).
Much research is being done to determine both the myths and reality related to pregnancy. This paper shows that there are some myths related to pregnancy coming from old wives, regarding diet such as what to eat or not to eat, exercise, stress, medication. Moreover, there are misbelieves related to prediction of baby’s sex as well.
Some major myths related to pregnancy are as following:
• Prescription and medication
1. “All over the world, …show more content…
2. “Even though pregnancy is typically a happy time, its still very common for expecting moms to struggle with prescriptions and medications to deal with depression and other conditions”:
“Medication is taken as optional or is least adopted as a treatment regimen in case of maternal depression. One of the other hand, it is adopted in the case of gestational diabetes. Old wives believe that medication should not be taken during gestation and that the emotions are simply a natural part of pregnancy. It is also an emerging issue concerned to drug interaction in few selective cases such as women on antidepressants or drugs in their pre-pregnancy state” (Macdonald, 2015).
Pregnant women who took antidepressant that causes infant heart problems. “A prominent study linked selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a commonly prescribed type of antidepressant, to a rare heart and lung condition called persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). In addition, another study connected the drugs to congenital heart defects” (Moninger, n.d).
3. “Although exercise is good for health but there is stigma related to various exercises among pregnant women. Some woman believe that exercise will maintain their muscle strength whereas others avoid exercise due to its bad impact on the baby”:
Some pregnant women should avoid exercise, researches shows that it could affect baby’s heart rate and development of brain. Supine exercises are the
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Target population was pregnant women less than fourteen weeks gestation that had a sedentary lifestyle. The researcher used two data collection instruments to complete this study. The first is The Cornell Protocol Fitness Tool that measured cardiovascular fitness level and peak oxygen consumption. The second data collection instrument used was The Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire assessed energy expenditure and daily physical activity. Candidates were excluded if they had chronic hypertension, gestational diabetes, and any medical condition that will prohibit daily exercise, communication problems, or recommendation of primary care provider not to participate (Yeo 2009).
may be linked to medications used during pregnancy. It is speculated that there are a multitude of health risks to the fetus if an expecting mother is prescribed antidepressants for Major Depressive Disorders. It is also hypothesized that there may be long-term effects to the child after birth if the mother of the child was taking antidepressants during her pregnancy. Postnatal psychological effects may be due to the onset of the drugs during pregnancy, and there may be a link between a child’s physical and psychological state once born, due to the drugs, but is not correlated to women that have used antidepressants before pregnancy. Results identify that there are many negative effects of antidepressants use during pregnancy.
I believe that mental health is not well discussed, or known, in today’s culture. People could struggle with mental health daily and others could have no idea. There are many different types of mental health issues, and one specific issue that is rarely discussed is postpartum depression. Postpartum depression is a specific type of depression that new mothers can experience after the birth of their child. (Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, Nock, 2012). The changing hormones a mother can experience directly after birth cause this condition. Postpartum depression can cause a mother to feel sad, guilty, and even experience thoughts of suicide. Postpartum depression may be discussed in the text, but the causes and even the treatments are not.
Stimulants are considered as a drug and are commonly used today. The question is will use of stimulants while pregnant affect the infant. A pregnant woman can be prescribed stimulants (Antidepressants) because of them being depressed and stressed out about everything that is occurring in their life while pregnant, but what many people do not see is it going to affect the infant long-term. Most mothers want what is best for their child and they want to make sure that their child is going to have a healthy life as much as possible. Is it safe to take the antidepressants while pregnant and will there be any risk factors? There is mainly a biological and environmental that reflect a child’s senses and development.
Another important factor is doing daily activities as tolerated. Exercise in moderation, and incorporate stretching lower and upper extremities with rest period. Also monitor daily weight daily and notify physician if any critical change. The pregnant woman will be encouraged to practice deep breathing exercises and this can be used to minimize anxieties and promote energy. This will also prepare the pregnant woman for proper fitness and endurance during delivery and caring for the newborn. These regimens mentioned will minimizes fatigues both on the mother and the developing fetus.
Despite the physical changes that a woman is to expect during her pregnancy, a major concern that requires attention is a period of expected feelings of depression that a woman may encounter known as baby blues. Although normal, and expected baby blues can lead into post partum depression that involves a myriad of emotions and mood swings. If not addressed postpartum depression can lead to a more severe form of baby blues known in the clinical world as postpartum non-psychotic depression that requires professional intervention. The therapeutic goal during this time is to prevent the new mother from committing suicide where she poses a danger to both herself and her newborn.
The Center for Disease Control estimates that 1 in 20 people suffer from depression (2014). Although widely recognized and somewhat easy to diagnose, depression is an ignored and almost hidden, disease. In women, the statistics are especially grim for those who are pregnant or were recently pregnant. A great number of women suffer from postpartum depression; an illness which is often overlooked, misdiagnosed and untreated. Postpartum depression (PPD) has been defined as an emotional disorder that occurs in an estimated 10-15% of all women after childbirth (Liberto, 2010). Postpartum depression not only impacts the mother, but can cause long-term psychological challenges for the baby and create emotional turmoil for all family members.
According to two recent studies, 7-13% of all postpartum women suffer from depression. Even more alarming, the prevalence of postpartum depression (PPD) in mothers who have pre-term infants rises to 30-40% according to a recent review (Robertson E, Grace S, Wallington T, Stewart DE., 2004; Schmied V, Johnson M, Naidoo N, et al., 2013). Mood and anxiety disorders, specifically PPD, are severe, yet common complications in women of reproductive age. Undertreated depression in postpartum women is associated with health risks for both the mother and infant, making the goal of euthymia a top priority in the care of postpartum women. Current practice regarding PPD focuses on the triad approach of early detection and prevention, the use of pharmacotherapy, and the use of psychotherapy. However, the treatment of mental illness during pregnancy requires weighing the benefits of pharmacological treatment for the mother, to the risk of the medications on the growth and development of the fetus as well as the theoretical risks associated with undertreated depression. However, many studies are showing that the risks of postpartum depression to both the mother and infant significantly outweigh the risks of pharmacological treatment during pregnancy. Also, due to the ethical issues surrounding trials of pharmacotherapy during pregnancy, further research to determine evidenced-based methods of treatment are still necessary. The most important intervention to date is a
Depression, in general, affects more than 340 million people around the world and is reported to be the highest cause of disability in high-income countries (Demissie). 15% to 85% of mothers can experience postpartum “blues” with postpartum depression rates between 11.7% and 20.4% in the United States alone (Ersek). This depression can occur at anytime from post-delivery up to one year (Ersek).
While exercise may not be able to eliminate all of the discomfort associated with pregnancy, it can help with circulation, digestion, and constipation, as well as improve posture and muscle tone, which you will need to support joints that are loosened by various hormones as your body prepares for childbirth. Additionally, exercise can counteract the changes in body image and self-esteem that you possess. Most importantly, an appropriate exercise program can help prepare for the mental and physical demands of labor and delivery.
The antidepressants actually affect the mother as well as the child. “Given that the benefits of antidepressants overall, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors including paroxetine specifically, during pregnancy is questionable at best, any increase in risk—small or large—is too high,” said Dr. Bérard. (Daigle par. 3) Researches have actually found that everything the mother takes passes through the placenta, giving more risks to the medicine affecting the child in the womb. The placenta is a flattened circular organ in the uterus of pregnant women that nourishes and maintaining the fetus through the umbilical cord. That's why a mother will need to watch their own diet and what they take, it could really affect their child's future, and their own. All of the medications you take during pregnancy can affect you and your child. You have to be careful of what you put in your mouth while you're carrying a child. Some research associates use of citalopram, fluoxetine and sertraline with a rare but serious newborn lung problem (persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn) when taken during the last half of pregnancy. (Mayo Staff Clinic par. 1) Other possible risks of more rare birth defects are being studied further. A decision to use antidepressants during pregnancy is based on the balance between risks and benefits. Overall, the risk of birth
The current methods of treatment for postpartum depression include antidepressant medication, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and tricyclic antidepressants, and/or psychotherapy. However, there is a certain amount of risk when taken during pregnancy and lactation. These medications are a pregnancy category C and SSRIs, have been shown to have a slight risk of heart and lung birth defects (Reefhuis, Devine, Friedman, Louik, & Honein, 2015). In breastfeeding mothers, all psychiatric medications are secreted in breastmilk, and some
Even though many consider medications as a treatment to depression, it has high risk factors. It’s true that antidepressants like SSRI’s supposedly help the quality of improved life. However, are the consequences worth it? First of all, women using antidepressants have 20 % increase in both PTB and LBW compared to those who never used them during pregnancy (Cantarutti, Merlino, Monzani, Giaquinto, Corrao 1). Antidepressant medication is frequently prescribed to pregnant and lactating mothers. Women taking medications as treatment during pregnancy has a higher risk of getting birth defects to their children. Medications has proved to cause like metabolic syndrome and bipolar disorder. Generally, if SSRIs are taken during pregnancy,
It has been shown through studies that exercising aids in strength, flexibility, muscle tone and endurance, all in which help in areas such as carrying extra weight, preparing for the physical stresses of labor and contributing in shedding the pounds postpartum (Gulino 2). Exercise also helps in relieving that excess weight gain, swelling, varicose veins, fatigue and leg cramps. It helps to prevent depression and establish confidence both before and after labor. Exercise lowers stress and improves emotional health. It has been shown through studies that women who exercise during pregnancy have shorter labors as well as a decreased need for painkillers and an epidural during labor and delivery (Hudson 1).