Literature Review Of Sex Offender And Sexual Offences

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Chapter 1 Literature Review 1.1 Definition: ‘Sex offender’ and ‘Sexual offence’ A sex offender is an individual convicted of a sex crime including such offences as rape, sexual assault, offences related to prostitution, or against children, severe pornography and the ownership and circulation of offensive images (The Crown Prosecution Service, 2017) or who evinces a paraphilic disorder as classified in The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). 1.2. Statistical Data 1.2.1 Ireland Sex offenders are viewed by society as ‘remorseless, unrehabilitable, monsters’ (Scheela, 2001, p.757) therefore it is disconcerting to comprehend sexual offences, both in Ireland and internationally are increasing. According to the Central Statistics Office in Ireland (2014), there were 1,480 sexual offences recorded in 2009, rising…show more content…
Through its cognitive behavioural approach, offenders are encouraged to develop significant life goals and change cognitive and behavioural patterns to reduce the risk of re-offending once re-integrated into the community (HM Prison & Probation Service, 2017). Research shows sex offenders receiving treatment, either in prison or in the community have lower sexual reconviction rates compared to those who do not receive treatment, which concurs with findings from an exploratory investigation of twenty-six research studies which showed a 27% reduction in sexual offending for sex offenders receiving treatment (Schmucker & Losel, 2009). Circles of Support and Accountability schemes also operate throughout the country and work together with sex offenders to help minimise isolation and support re-integration back into the community to reduce re-offending (Circles UK,
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