Literature Review On Social Movements

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II. LITERATURE REVIEW Social movements (SMs) have been part of society’s history and politics for centuries. For some authors, they started with the French Revolution and have been constantly rising and falling depending on the existent socio-political climate (Reichmann & Fernandez Buey, 1994). For Charles Tilly, the nineteenth laid the groundwork for the modern social movements of the twentieth century (Tilly, 1998). Karl Marx also studied and developed the concept of SMs; he viewed them as a means of achieving a deep social change through class conflict (Tarrow, 2011). Studied in relationship to the rise of globalisation and social media, the expansion and modernisation of SMs has become increasingly prominent in the academic literature of the last century. Accordingly, Globalisation has made it possible for individuals to empower themselves through participation in supranational organisations and international organisms that challenge governmental authority. As evidenced by Manuel Castells, populations around the world are now able to come together to affect change by expressing ideas and demonstrating in support of pressing issues (Castells, 2009). Chile has been no exception to the trend of globalisation and has participated in and developed a number of strong international social movements. The academic literature on social movements is vast. Since there are many types of SMs that focus on different aspects of human life (economic, social, political and

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