Marasco 10. . Depression. By. Mary Katherine Marasco. Ms.

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Marasco 10 Depression By Mary Katherine Marasco Ms. Carr Anatomy and Physiology H 23 February 2016 Mary Katherine Marasco Ms. Carr Anatomy and Physiology H 23 February 2016 Depression Depression- the most diagnosed mental illness in the world- is also the most misunderstood. Depression?a sad or discontented mood?can leave a person feeling lethargic, unmotivated, or hopeless, and in some cases ? contemplate suicide. Unfortunately, depression usually begins as high levels of anxiety and with exposure to trauma in children. Higher levels of anxiety or exposure to stress-inducing and traumatic situations as a child could mean an increased risk of depression as an adult. Although a serious mental illness all over the world in …show more content…

The cerebral cortex directs functions like speech, behavior, reactions, movement, thinking, and learning. In fact, some research suggests that bipolar disorder originates with problems with the thalamus, which links sensory input to good and bad feelings. The hippocampus also affects depression. It, like the amygdala, is part of the limbic system. It is vital in processing long-term memory. This section of the brain registers recurring fear. In people with clinical depression, the hippocampus is much smaller. Research suggests, even, that ongoing exposure to stress impairs the growth of nerve cells in this part of the brain. One of the most important jobs of the brain is to process senses, through neurons. Neurotransmitters are specific substances that help relay information to the brain. Scientists have identified many neurotransmitters that affect depression. A lack or excess of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine, serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, glutamate, lithium carbonate and gamma-aminobutyric acid are thought to contribute to depression. Acetylcholine is involved in learning and enhances memory. Serotonin helps regulate sleep, appetite, and mood, and inhibits pain. Research shows the idea that many depressed people have reduced levels of serotonin. Low levels of a byproduct of serotonin have been linked to a high risk for suicide. Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter which constricts blood vessels and raises blood pressure. An excess in

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