Mesopotamian Civilization

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Mesopotamian Civilization
Wedged between the Tigris and Euphrates River, the first civilization and founder of the many methods and ideas we hold today, now lay in ruins under the desert sands of present day Iraq. Mesopotamia is home to the invention of writing, our twelve month lunar based calendar, the wheel, the division of minutes to seconds, and the opening of the first routes to import and export trade. The Sumerians of Mesopotamia were enveloped by environmental conditions that constantly tested their skills and intellect for survival. This need for survival served as the basis that called forth the invention of methods and ideas that overtime increased and spiraled into the creation of a higher human society.
Nature threatened
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Beneath the dominate rule, the large city-states thrived of diverse cultures, languages, and religions. There were constant battles and wars between these cities-state over boundaries, the show of power, and resources. The weak fell and the dominant survived. The Sumerians not only fought amongst themselves but were on attack by outside peoples like the Akkadians. Even though the Sumerians were sometimes overcome, those who were victorious still adopted their lifestyle and systems.
It is here that the monarchy system was developed which was commanded by a priest-king, who ruled through bureaucrats. It was through this system that larger areas were able to be governed and duties such as judging disputes, organizing military, administrating crops, protecting the people, and administrating trade was possible. This was mostly put in the responsibility of the priest who overlooked the state and status of the people.
The main cities of the Sumerian civilization were Nippur, Uruk, Girsu, and Ur. The ancient homes mainly consisted of either mud and brick huts or reeds that were interwoven for strength and stability. The daily life was centered around each city’s main temple where offerings and prayers were brought to the gods. The Sumerian religion was polytheistic, with human-like gods who carried emotional traits such as love, hate, and anger. Each divinity ruled over a city and instilled fear and respect into the
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