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Mitochondria Case

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Can re-energizing our cellular batteries recharge our lives? Mitochondria are important intracellular organelles responsible for life & death. The mitochondrial matrix has multiple copies of mitochondrial DNA whose replication are not related to the cell cycle. Thus replication of mitochondrial DNA occurs several times and leads to mutations due to error in replication. This leads to mitochondrial dysfunctions which subsequently leads to oxidative stress and an increase in ROS . The main function of mitochondria is to produce ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. It regulates a variety of metabolic and signaling pathways and also plays an important role in programmed cell death. Recent studies using animal models have shown the decline in mitochondrial function with age thus bringing out a relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and…show more content…
In contrast, mitochondrial dysfunction accelerates premature aging. Recent studies of mitochondria, mitochondrial DNA and free radical production has found an increased accumulation of mitochondrial DNA defect, increased production of ROS and decrease in mitochondrial function in brain tissues of aged rodents and humans relative to young ones giving an indication that increase in mitochondrial DNA defect is involved in aging. Data from studies in mice with mutations in mitochondrial DNA suggests that increase in mitochondrial DNA mutations that arise during development may lead to an increase in ROS , deregulated stem cell homeostasis and premature aging by affecting mitochondrial bioenergetics. Aberrant mitochondrial biogenesis and secondary changes in mitochondrial energy production may leads to loss in accuracy of biochemical events involved in mitochondrial ETC subsequently leading to an electron leakage of 0.5 – 5% and increased production of
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