Essay about Module 4

1422 Words Oct 3rd, 2014 6 Pages
Estela Garcia
June 10, 2014
PHI 2010

Module 3: Chapter 13 & 15.

1. Explain and evaluate the notions of Karma, samsara, and Nirvana. - Karma, samsara and nirvana fall under the religion of Hinduism. When all of our actions bring consequences, either in this life or the next is referred as karma. Samsara means the cycle of birth and death. Us humans are basically good, but are caught up in a cycle of pure desire and also of suffering that is a direct result of ignorance and of the go. Nirvana is another word to describe the permanent liberation from life. It is a liberation from the cycle of samsara, in which we cease to exist and become one with the universe.

2. Explain and evaluate the Hindu ideas of Brahman, atman
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Anselm. St. Anselm argued that a perfect being is necessary for existence. His argument is even prior to nature. St. Anselm thought it was impossible for anyone to reason about God or God’s existence without already believing in him. St. Anselm started the Ontological Argument based upon the nature of being. The Ontological Argument states that God is “the greatest being conceivable”. Anselm also said that if we imagine two objects both identical, but one exists and the other does not, then the one that exist is more perfect. Perfection cannot be perfect.

10. Explain and evaluate Guanilo’s objection to the ontological argument. - Guanilo objected the believe of St. Anselm. Guanilo argues that existence does not make something more perfect, that is why he employs the reduction argument, meaning that he employs the same structure but changes one word, thereby making the conclusion absorb. It was absurd to conclude that God necessary exist simply because we can conceive of him.

11. Summarize and evaluate St. Thomas Aquinas’s Five Ways. - St. Thomas Aquina interpreted Aristotelian philosophy from a Christian perspective. Aquina also gave five proofs for God’s existence; motion, efficient cause, possibility and necessity, degrees of perfection and design. The first way was natural things are in motion. If something is in motion, then it must be set into motion by something outside of itself. There
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